Warhead Confirmation & Radiation Measurements

This section discusses a number of technologies and approaches that could be used for warhead confirmation. The ability to measure and confirm the declared radiation characteristics of a treaty-limited item may prove to be essential for meeting future verification objectives, and a substantial body of technical research exists on how to do so.

 

Key Documents in Warhead Confirmation & Radiation Measurements:

Hauck, Danielle K. and Duncan W. MacArthur, Benefits of a "Presence of Fissile Material" Attribute for Warhead Confirmation in Treaty Verification. LA-UR-13-25330. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2013.

Mullens, James A. et al., Use of Imaging for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2007.

Kouzes, R.T. et al., Introduction to Methods Demonstrations for Authentication. PNNL-13941. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2002.

Olinger, Chad T. et al., Measurement Approaches to Support Future Warhead Arms Control Transparency. LA-UR-98-3115. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1998.

 

The following additional resources are available:

Schöppner, Michael Alexander Glaser, and Mark Walker, Detecting Clandestine Plutonium Separation Activities with Krypton-85. Courtesy of Princeton University's Nuclear Futures Laboratory. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2015. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2015. All rights reserved.

Clark, Kimberly L. et al., Characterization of the NPOD3 Detectors in MCNP5 and MCNP6. LA-UR-14-20342. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2014.

Kütt, Moritz, Sebastien Philippe, Boaz Barak, Alexander Glaser, and Robert J. Goldston, Authenticating Nuclear Warheads With High Confidence. Courtesy of Princeton University's Nuclear Futures Laboratory. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2014. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2014. All rights reserved.

MacArthur, Duncan W. et al., Confirmation of Nuclear Treaty Limited Items - Pre-Dismantlement vs. Post-Dismantlement. LA-UR-13-23004. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2013.

Archer, Daniel, Third Generation Attribute Measurement System. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2012. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2012. All rights reserved.

Evans, Louise G. et al., An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles. LA-UR-12-24054. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2012.

Hausladen, P.A. et al., Fast-Neutron Coded-Aperture Imaging of Special Nuclear Material Configurations. Idaho National Laboratory. 2012.

Henzl, Vladimir et al., Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation for Treaty Verification Applications. LA-UR-12-26232. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2012.

Mihalczo, John and James Mullens, Nuclear Material Identification System with Imaging and Gamma-Ray Spectrometry for Plutonium, Highly Enriched Uranium, High Explosives, and Other Materials. ORNL/TM-2012/22. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2012.

Swift, Alicia L. et al., Attributes from NMIS Time Coincidence, Fast-Neutron Imaging, Fission Mapping, and Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Data. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2012. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2012. All rights reserved.

Sword, E.D. and S.M. McConchie, Edge Detection and Shape Recognition in Neutron Transmission Images. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2012.

Mullens, James et al., Neutron Radiography and Fission Mapping Measurements of Nuclear Materials with Varying Composition and Shielding. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2011. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2011. All rights reserved.

Schear, Melissa A. et al., Fissile Isotope Discrimination in Spent Fuel Assemblies by Analysis of the Correlated Neutron Signal. LA-UR-11-02596. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2011.

Stange, Sy et al., Development of a Neutron POD Spectrometer. LA-UR-11-04081. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2011.

Archer, Daniel et al., Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2010. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2010. All rights reserved.

Crye, J.M. et al., Time Correlation Measurements of Heavily Shielded Uranium Metal. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2010. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2010. All rights reserved.

Hausladen, P.A. et al., Induced-Fission Imaging of Nuclear Material. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2010.

Jeffcoat, Ron et al., A Comparison of GADRAS-Simulated and Measured Gamma-ray Spectra. SRNL L2200-2010-00086. Savannah River National Laboratory. 2010.

Merkle, Peter B. et al., Next Generation Trusted Radiation Identification System. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2010. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2010. All rights reserved.

Miller, Karen A. et al., A New Technique for Uranium Cylinder Assay Using Passive Neutron Self-Interrogation. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2010.

Ziock, Klaus-Peter et al.,  A Mechanically-Cooled, Highly-Portable, HPGe-Based, Coded-Aperture Gamma-Ray Imager. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2010. 

Hayes, Robert B., Can Handheld Plastic Detectors Do Both Gamma and Neutron Isotopic Identification with Directional Source Location? DOE/NV/25946-416. U.S. Department of Energy. 2008.

McConchie, Seth, et al., Passive Time Coincidence Measurements with HEU and DU Metal Castings. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2008. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2008. All rights reserved.

Grogan, B.R. et al., MCNP-PoliMi Simulation of Neutron Radiography Measurements for Mass Determination for a Trough of UO3. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 2007. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 2007. All rights reserved.

Hall, J.M. et al., The Nuclear Car Wash: Neutron Interrogation of Cargo Containers to Detect Hidden SNM. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B 261, pp.337-340. 2007.

Landry, Robert et al., Multiple Processors vs. A Single Processor In Attribute Measurement Systems.  LA-UR-02-5318. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2002.

Hollas, C.L. et al., Non Destructive Analysis of Shielded Highly Enriched Uranium. LA-UR-01-1881. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2001.

Kouzes, R.T. and J.L. Fuller, Authentication of Monitoring Systems for Non-Proliferation and Arms Control.  PNNL-SA-35296. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2001.

Mullens, J.A. et al., Automated Template Matching Method for NMIS at the Y-12 National Security Complex. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Y/LB-16,079. 2001.

Neal, J.S. et al., Pulse Shape Discrimination for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 2001.

Sampson, Tomas E. and Teresa L. Cremers, The Concentration of 236Pu Daughters in Plutonium for Application to MOX Production from Plutonium from Dismantled US Nuclear Weapons. LA-13762-MS. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2001.

Seager, Kevin D. et al., Trusted Radiation Identification System. SAND2001-1866C. Sandia National Laboratory. 2001.

Kouzes, R.T. and B.D. Geelhood, Methods for Attribute Measurement and Alternatives to Multiplicity Counting. PNNL-13250. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. May 2000.

Landry, Robert, Attribute Measurement System Computational Block Subsystem: Design Documentation Manual Vol. 1. LA-UR-00-3809. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 2000.

Mitchell, D.J. and K.M. Tolk, Trusted Radiation Attribute Demonstration System. SAND2000-1481C. Sandia National Laboratory. 2000.

Karpius, Peter J. and Richard B. Williams, Designing Minimum Functionality Attribute Measurement Hardware. LA-UR-09-06225. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1999.

Miller, S.D. et al., Low-Resolution Imaging using Optically Stimulated Luminescence. PNNL-13196. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 1999.

Morgan, James et al., A Gamma-Ray Camera for Arms Control Applications. UCRL-JC-134557. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 1999.

Nicholas, N.J. et al., Instrument Recommendations for Trilateral Initiative Attribute Verification Measurement Technologies. LA-UR-98-2084. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1998.

Fearey, B.L. et al, Verification of Excess Defense Material. LA-UR-97-3756. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1997 

Nicolas, N.J. et al, Nonintrusive Verification Attributes for Excess Fissile Materials. LA-UR-97-3875. Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1997 

Kane, Walter R. and Peter Vanier, Some Possible Applications of Measurements on Mu Mesons to Nuclear Safeguards, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control Activities. BNL-64033. Brookhaven National Laboratory. 1997.

Vanier, Peter E. and Leon Forman, Advances in Imaging with Thermal Neutrons. Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Annual Meeting. 1996. This paper is reprinted with permission from the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. Copyright 1996. All rights reserved.

Moss, C.E. et al., Detection of Uranium-Based Nuclear Weapons Using Neutron-Induced Fission. LA-UR-91-3514. Los Alamos National Laboratory.1991.

Mattingly, J.K. et al., Reduction of Background by Higher Order Statistics with NMIS. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Mattingly, J.K. et al., Enrichment and Uranium Mass from NMIS for HEU. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Mihalczo, John et al., NMIS Plus Gamma Spectroscopy for Attributes of HEU, Pu, and HE Detection. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

 

Note: The content on this website and in this resource collection does not necessarily reflect the views of the members of the International Partnership.

September 16, 2015
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A collection of PDF documents provided to facilitate understanding of warhead confirmation and radiation measurements.