As members of global leadership networks comprised of senior political, military and diplomatic leaders from across five continents, we have come together to call upon NPT members to approach the 2015 Review Conference with a renewed sense of urgency and responsibility focused on achieving a successful outcome.
With near universal membership, the NPT remains the indispensable central pillar of a norm-based global nuclear order, aimed at preventing the spread and use of nuclear weapons and helping progressively to reduce their numbers and roles in national security doctrines while facilitating safe and peaceful uses of nuclear power. For these reasons, failure at this Review Conference must be avoided.
A successful outcome of the Conference would have positive benefits for the wider international security environment and would promote efforts to pursue successful multilateral cooperation to address a number of the world’s other challenges, particularly coming as it does after the recent framework agreement with Iran.
In August this year, the world will commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. This reminder of the consequences of nuclear weapons use should be powerful motivation for all NPT States Parties to actively pursue a practical agenda for success at the Review Conference and take urgent action on the following steps.
Steps towards a safer world to be advanced during the Review Conference
With regard to non–proliferation and peaceful uses: All States Parties should re-confirm their commitment to non-proliferation.
- We note the April 2 framework agreement on key parameters of a negotiated settlement on Iran’s nuclear program. The E3+3 group and Iran should make clear their commitment to reach a final deal by June 30. We call on Iran to cooperate fully with the IAEA and promptly ratify the Additional Protocol. The capacity of the Agency to close the file on possible military dimensions of Iran’s nuclear program, and to monitor Iran’s compliance with the terms of an agreement, will be crucial for an agreement’s long-term success.
- All States Parties should adopt Additional Protocols for their Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and increase support for and funding to the IAEA to expand the Agency’s human and technical capacity for a timely and efficient verification.
- All states whose signature and/or ratification is necessary to bring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) into force should act as soon as possible, without awaiting such action by any other State Party, and in the meantime maintain a moratorium on all nuclear tests.
- All states should commence negotiations on a Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) as an additional obstacle to nuclear weapons proliferation, preferably within the framework of the Conference on Disarmament.
With regard to disarmament: We remain concerned that nuclear weapons have been given an extended role in the political strategies and military doctrines of some of their possessors. We urge states to move away from a Cold War deterrence mentality regarding the role of nuclear weapons and to act responsibly in their rhetoric, force postures, military doctrines, political strategies and reduction of their arsenals.
- All nuclear armed states should narrow the conditions for use of nuclear weapons, declare that the sole purpose of their nuclear weapons is to deter the threat and use of nuclear weapons by others, and re-confirm and strengthen their negative security assurances to non-nuclear weapon states.
- Russia and the United States have a special responsibility and obligation to demonstrate leadership and should continue to abide by and implement all existing bilateral and multilateral agreements and understandings, including the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) and New START. They also should discuss and agree on steps towards lowering the prompt-launch status of elements of their nuclear forces.
- Russia should act upon President Putin’s public statement supporting continued talks to reduce nuclear arsenals, and the United States should remain open to such talks. All nuclear armed states should pursue voluntary caps at or reductions below their current levels, and all States Parties must respect their NPT obligations in planning the future of their nuclear forces.
- We welcome the creation of the International Partnership for Nuclear Disarmament Verification. This joint enterprise should serve as a model for all states to engage in intensive work on how to achieve the goal of a world without nuclear weapons, including moving toward global “sole purpose” and “no first use” policies.
- The NPT Review Conference is not the forum for negotiating potentially binding new legal instruments. Nevertheless it is a legitimate place for debating elements of a legal path towards a world free of nuclear weapons, and the Nuclear Weapon States (NWS) should be part of such debate.
- We recognize the value of the “P5” process and urge the group to intensify its dialogue and present new commitments for the 2015-2020 period, including a pledge to increase transparency and broaden the scope of reporting. We also acknowledge this is an insufficient process and the objectives of disarmament can only be reached when all nuclear-armed states are held accountable to the goals and requirements of the NPT.
With regard to the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons (HINW) initiative: We support the Initiative and encourage steps to promote its continuation.
- Following the welcome decision of the United States and United Kingdom to participate in the 2014 Vienna Conference on the HINW, we urge the continuation of this dialogue and call on all remaining NWS to declare in New York that they will engage constructively on this initiative in the future.
With regard to the Middle East WMD Free Zone: We are concerned about the delay in convening a Conference on a Middle East WMD Free Zone and urge participants in New York not to use this delay to in any way derail the Review Conference. We call for:
- States Parties to recognize the value of efforts made by states in the region to date to fulfill the 2010 promise, as well as efforts by the Conference Co-conveners and the Facilitator. All those in a position to do so should assist each of these parties in their efforts to make progress amid difficult security circumstances in the region.
- All Parties to support the convening of the WMD Free Zone Conference as a priority for the next review cycle, thereby confirming the paramount importance of creating a WMD Free Zone in the Middle East for global security.
With regard to nuclear security: Securing nuclear weapons-usable material around the world is not only vital for our immediate security but a crucial early step in disarmament and a necessity for non-proliferation. We therefore call on all NPT States Parties to:
- Support the concept of a global nuclear security system that covers all weapons-usable nuclear materials, including those used for military purposes, employs international standards and best practices, enables a country to build the confidence of others about the effectiveness of their security through reassuring actions, and minimizes the risk posed by these materials through actions to reduce and consolidate material and, where possible, eliminate them.
- In the case of those that possess weapons-usable nuclear materials that are military materials (i.e., outside civilian programs), to take steps to strengthen the security of those nuclear materials and to build international confidence in their security.
- Become party to and implement all international instruments for the prevention of nuclear terrorism and illicit trafficking of weapons-usable materials and technology, including the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its 2005 amendment, the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and the UN Security Council Resolution 1540.
- Minimize stocks of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium, convert reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fueled, and support efforts to use non-HEU technologies for the production of radioisotopes.
- Secure all radioactive sources, consistent with guidance in the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Nuclear Security Series recommendations.
From the European Leadership Network
1. Fatmir Mediu, former Defence Minister
2. Wolfgang Petritsch, former EU Special Envoy to Kosovo and former High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina
3. Dr. Solomon Passy, former Foreign Minister
4. Davor Božinović, former Minister of Defence
5. Budimir Lončar, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Yugoslavia
6. Prof. Ivo Šlaus, former member of parliament and member of the Foreign Affairs Committee
7. Jan Kavan, former Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister
8. Amb. Jaakko Blomberg, former Under-Secretary of State at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs
9. Prof. Raimo Väyrynen, former Director at Finnish Institute of International Affairs
10. Pierre Lellouche, former Secretary of State for Foreign Trade and former President of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly
11. General (Ret.) Bernard Norlain, former Air Defence Commander and Air Combat Commander in the French Air Force
12. Paul Quilès, former Defence Minister
13. Michel Rocard, former Prime Minister
14. Tedo Japaridze, former Minister of Foreign Affairs
15. Katja Keul, member of the German Bundestag and Subcommittee on Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation
16. Walter Kolbow, former Deputy Federal Minister of Defence
17. General (Ret.) Klaus Naumann, former Chief of Staff of the Bundeswehr, Former Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
18. Volker Rühe, former Defence Minister
19. Uta Zapf, former member of the Bundestag & Chairperson of the Subcommittee on Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-proliferation
20. János Martonyi, former Minister for Foreign Affairs
21. Amb. Giancarlo Aragona, former Secretary General of OSCE, and Italian rep to the Albright Group for the drafting of NATO’s “New Strategic Concept”
22. Margherita Boniver, former Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs
23. Prof. Francesco Calogero, former Secretary General of Pugwash
24. Massimo D'Alema, former Prime Minister; Former Minister of Foreign Affairs
25. Giorgio La Malfa, former Minister of European Affairs
26. Stefano Silvestri, consultant for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministries of Defence and Industry
27. Amb. Carlo Trezza, Member of the Advisory Board of the UN Secretary General for Disarmament Matters and Chairman of the Missile Technology Control Regime
28. Prof. Laurens Jan Brinkhorst, former Deputy Foreign Minister
29. Prof. Klaas de Vries, former Minister of Home Affairs
30. Målfrid Braut-Hegghammer, Stanford MacArthur Visiting Scholar at the Center for International Security and Cooperation
31. Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, former Prime Minister
32. Kåre Willoch, former Prime Minister
33. Dr. Sławomir Dębski, Director of the Centre for Polish-Russian Dialogue and Understanding
34. Dr. Ricardo Baptista Leite, Member of Parliament
35. Amb. Alexander Bessmertnykh, former Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs
36. Anatoli Diakov, Director at Centre for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
37. Igor Ivanov, former Russian Foreign Minister
38. Dmitry Polikanov, Vice-President at PIR-Centre and former Deputy Head of the "United Russia" Central Committee
39. Amb. Vyacheslav Trubnikov, former Director of the Foreign Intelligence Service
40. Igor Yurgens, Chairman of the Management Board, Institute of Contemporary Development (ICD)
41. Goran Svilanovic, Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities
42. Dr. Ana Palacio, former Foreign Minister and former Senior Vice President of the World Bank
43. Dr. Hans Blix, former Director General of the IAEA; Former Foreign Minister
44. Amb. Rolf Ekeus, current Advisor to Jaakko Laajava, Under-Secretary of State in the Finnish Foreign Ministry and 2012 Middle East Conference; former Swedish Ambassador to the Conference on Disarmament
45. Henrik Salander, former Ambassador to the Conference on Disarmament, Secretary-General of the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission
46. Hikmet Çetin, former Minister of Foreign Affairs
47. Vahit Erdem, former head of the Turkish Delegation to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly
48. Faruk Loğoğlu, former Ambassador to the US and currently a member of The Grand National Assembly of Turkey
49. Amb. Özdem Sanberk, former Undersecretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey
50. Anatoliy Grytsenko, former Defence Minister
51. Sir Tony Brenton, former Ambassador to Russia
52. Lord Browne of Ladyton (Des Browne), former British Defence Secretary
53. Charles Clarke, former Home Secretary
54. Lord Hannay of Chiswick (David Hannay), former Ambassador to the EU and to the UN; current Chair of UK All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Security and Non-Proliferation in the UK Parliament
55. Sir Nick Harvey, Member of Parliament and former Minister of State for the Armed Forces
56. Dr. Ian Kearns, Director of the European Leadership Network
57. Lord Kerr of Kinlochard (John Kerr), former Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office and Head of the Diplomatic Service
58. Lord King of Bridgwater (Tom King), former Defence Secretary,
59. General Sir John McColl, former NATO Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (DSACEUR)
60. Lord David Owen, former British Foreign Secretary
61. Lord David Ramsbotham, Crossbench Peer in the House of Lords
62. Lord Richards of Herstmonceux (David Richards), former Chief of the Defence Staff
63. Sir Malcolm Rifkind MP, former British Defence Secretary and former Foreign Secretary
64. Lord Triesman (David Triesman), former Parliamentary Under-Secretary (Foreign and Commonwealth Office)
65. Admiral the Lord West of Spithead (Alan West), former First Sea Lord of the British Navy
66. Baroness Williams of Crosby (Shirley Williams), ICNND Commissioner, Advisor on Non-Proliferation issues to Gordon Brown
From the Latin American Leadership Network
67. Irma Argüello, Chair of the NPSGlobal Foundation – Secretary of the Latin American and Caribbean Leadership Network, Argentina
68. Dr. José Horacio Jaunarena, former Minister of Defense
69. Roberto García Moritán, former Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs
70. Prof. Ricardo López Murphy, former Minister of Defense
71. Dr. José Pampuro, former Minister of Defense
72. Dr. Jaime Ravinet de la Fuente, former Minister of Defense
73. Camilo Reyes Rodríguez, former Minister of Foreign Affairs
74. General Oswaldo Jarrín, former Minister of Defense
75. Amb. Miguel Marín Bosch, former Alternate Permanent Representative to the United Nations and member of the Mexico diplomatic service
76. Álvaro Bermúdez, former Director of Energy and Nuclear Technology
From the Asia-Pacific Leadership Network
77. Prof. Gareth Evans QC, former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Australia (APLN Convenor)
78. Prof. Robert Hill AC, former Defence Minister of Australia
79. Prof. Ramesh Thakur, Director, Centre for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, Australian National University
80. Dr. Li Bin, Professor, Tsinghua University; Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment
81. Pan Zhenqiang, Maj.Gen (ret.), former Director, Institute of Strategic Studies, National Defence University
82. Prof. P.R. Chari, former Additional Secretary, Ministry of Defence
83. Amb. Lalit Mansingh, former Foreign Secretary
84. Dr. C. Raja Mohan, Head of Strategic Studies, Observer Research Foundation
85. Prof R. Rajaraman, Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
86. Air Chief Marshal Shashi Tyagi (India), (Ret); Former Chief of the Indian Air Force
87. Dr. Nur Hassan Wirajuda, former Foreign Minister
88. Dr. Wiryono Sastrohandoyo, former Ambassador to Australia
89. Prof Nobuyase Abe, former United Nations Under-Secretary General for Disarmament
90. Yoriko Kawaguchi, former Foreign Minister
91. Hidehiko Yuzaki, Governor of Hiroshima Prefecture
92. Hasmy Agam, former Ambassador to the United Nations
93. Rt. Hon. Jim Bolger ONZ, former Prime Minister
94. Sir Geoffrey Palmer, former Prime Minister
95. Pervez Hoodbhoy, Professor of Nuclear Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University
96. General Jehangir Karamat (ret.), former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
97. Amb. Carlos D. Sorreta, Ambassador to Russia and former Director-General, Foreign Service Institute
Republic of Korea:
98. Amb. Chun Yungwoo, former Senior Secretary to the President for Foreign Affairs & National Security
99. Han Sung-Joo, former Foreign Minister
100. Prof. Moon Chung-in, Editor in Chief, Global Asia
101. Prof. Song Minsoon, former Foreign Minister
102. Amb. Kishore Mahbubani, former Ambassador to the United Nations; Dean, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy
103. Jayantha Dhanapala, former United Nations Under-Secretary General for Disarmament
104. Dr. Surin Pitsuwan, former Foreign Minister and Former Secretary-General of ASEAN
105. Amb. Ton Nu Thi Ninh, former Ambassador to the European Union
From the Nuclear Security Leadership Council
106. Dr. Graham Allison, Director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
107. Steve Andreasen, former Director for Defense Policy and Arms Control on the White House National Security Council; National Security Consultant, NTI
108. James Cartwright, Former Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
109. Joe Cirincione, President, Ploughshares Fund
110. Dr. Sidney D. Drell, Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, Professor Emeritus, Stanford University
111. Jan Lodal, Distinguished Fellow, Atlantic Council of the United States and Chairman, Lodal and Company
112. Richard G. Lugar, former United States Senator
113. Sam Nunn, Co-Chairman and CEO, NTI; former United States Senator
114. Michael A. Peterson, President and Chief Executive Officer, Peter G. Peterson Foundation
115. Joan Rohlfing, President and COO, NTI; former Senior Adviser for National Security to the U.S. Secretary of Energy
116. Prof. Christopher Stubbs, professor of Physics and of Astronomy , Harvard University
This statement reflects the views of the signatories but is not an official position of the ELN, LALN, APLN, NSLC, or NTI.
Asia Pacific Leadership Network (APLN): A network of more than 40 current and former political, military, and diplomatic leaders in the Asia Pacific region—including from nuclear weapons-possessing states of China, India and Pakistan—working to improve public understanding, shape public opinion, and influence political decision-making and diplomatic activity on issues concerning nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament. The APLN is convened by former Australian Foreign Minister Gareth Evans. www.a-pln.org
European Leadership Network (ELN): A network of more than 130 senior European political, military and diplomatic figures working to build a more coordinated European policy community, define strategic objectives and feed analysis and viewpoints into the policy-making process for nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament issues. Former UK Defense Secretary and NTI Vice Chairman Des Browne is Chair of the Executive Board of ELN. www.europeanleadershipnetwork.org/
Latin American Leadership Network (LALN): A network of 16 senior political, military, and diplomatic leaders across Latin America and the Caribbean working to promote constructive engagement on nuclear issues and to create an enhanced security environment to help reduce global nuclear risks. The LALN is led by Irma Arguello, founder and chair of Argentina-based NPSGlobal. http://npsglobal.org/
Nuclear Security Leadership Council (NSLC): A newly formed Council, based in the United States, brings together approximately 20 influential leaders with diverse backgrounds from North America.
Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization working to reduce threats from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. NTI is governed by a prestigious, international board of directors and is co-chaired by founders Sam Nunn and Ted Turner. NTI’s activities are directed by Nunn and President Joan Rohlfing. For more information, visit www.nti.org. For more information about the Nuclear Security Project, visit www.NuclearSecurityProject.org.
In a statement released at the outset of the 2015 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference, more than 100 current and former senior political, military and diplomatic leaders from 43 countries call for a renewed sense of urgency and responsibility among NPT members to achieve a successful 2015 NPT Review Conference.