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Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST)

Last Modified: Dec. 13, 2012
Other Name: Shanghai Academy of Space Technology; 上海航天技术研究院; 上海空间技术研究院; Eighth Aerospace Academy; Eighth Academy; Shanghai Bureau of Astronautics (SHBOA); Shanghai Bureau of Space; Shanghai Astronautics Industry Bureau; Shanghai Astronautical Bureau; Shanghai Space B
Location: Shanghai, China
Subordinate To: China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)
Size: 16,800 persons and 17.1 billion RMB in capital[1]
Facility Status: Active

The Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST) was created in August 1961 and is a primary competitor with the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST).[2] SAST is a subsidiary of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). SAST is also commonly referred to as the Eighth Academy. The Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology is not to be confused with the Shanghai Academy of Science and Technology, also commonly referred to as SAST.

The organization has conducted extensive research, design and manufacturing for many parts of the Long March (LM) series of launch vehicles. Its original launch vehicle, the Feng Bao (“Storm,” FB-1), was unreliable and cancelled in 1981 to consolidate resources for the LM-2.[3] Currently, SAST manufactures LM-2D launch rockets, and the first and second stages of the LM-3.[4]  SAST manufactures the propulsion systems for the LM-4.[5] In addition, it helped design the LM-4B carrier rocket.[6]

SAST has many ongoing projects including conducting research and design for the LM-5, estimated to be completed by 2014, and LM-6 carrier rockets. According to SAST Vice President Meng Guang, the LM-6 will have a throw weight of 1,000kg and can reach an orbital range of 600km.[7] SAST is also designing the LM-7 launch vehicle. Scheduled for 2014, CALT official Yu Menglun made a statement that the LM-7 is estimated to have a low earth orbital throw weight of 13.5 tons.[8]

In addition, SAST researches, develops and manufactures multiple series of Surface-to-Air missiles (SAMs), Air-to-Air Missiles (AAMs) and man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS). Specifically, the organization specializes in infrared-guided and semi-active radar missile systems.[9] Among them is the HQ-61, a ship-launched SAM utilized by China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy.[10]

However, many SAST missile systems were sold around the world and acted as the basis for several indigenously developed missile systems. The HQ-64 (LY-60) missile system was exported to Pakistan.[11] The FN-6 (HY-6) missile system is utilized by the ground forces of Cambodia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Peru, and Sudan.[12] The HQ-2 is used by the air forces of Albania, Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand; and the ground forces of Myanmar. Its technology was also transferred to Egypt and North Korea.[13] The HN-5 system is used by the air force of Bolivia and the ground forces of Afghanistan, Albania, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Iran, Myanmar, North Korea, Pakistan and Thailand. Utilizing HN-5 technology, Pakistan has indigenously produced the Anza Mk I MANPADS system.[14]

The U.S. Government sanctioned SAST (as “Shanghai Astronautics Industry Bureau”) and other entities in 1993 for exporting Category II items in MTCR Annex to Pakistan. The Clinton administration waived these sanctions on 1 November 1994.[15]

SAST also specializes in space satellites for both civilian and military observation, manned spacecraft components, as well as civilian electronic and mechanical goods and property management.[16] Notably, it helped develop some thrust, power, communications, and docking components to the Shenzhou manned spacecraft.[17] Additionally, SAST conducted research and design for many of the FSW-3 and SJ-8 surveillance satellites.[18]

SAST has multiple subsidiaries, including:[19]

  • The Eighth Design Department, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, conducts research and design.
  • The 509th Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering (SISE), conducts research and design for satellites.
  • The 800th Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Precision Machinery, conducts research and design for carrier rockets, including the Long March family of rockets.
  • The 802nd Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Radio Equipment, conducts research and design for targeting systems.
  • The 803rd Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Xinyue Instrument Factory, produces course-plotting and guidance arrays.
  • The 804th Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Electronic and Communications Equipment, works on ground-based satellite systems.
  • The 805th Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Space Systems Engineering, conducts research and design for satellites and launch vehicles.
  • The 806th Research Institute conducts research and design for satellite energy systems.
  • The 807th Research Institute conducts gathers and processes information.
  • The 808th Research Institute conducts testing and trials for hardware.
  • The 809th Research Institute conducts research and design for control systems.
  • The 810th Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Xinli Power Equipment Institute, conducts research and design for launch propulsion systems.
  • The 811th Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources, conducts research and design for vehicle energy.
  • The 812nd Research Institute, also known as the Shanghai Institute of Control Engineering, conducts research and design for satellite control arrays. It has links to the Shanghai Aerospace Automobile Electromechanical Company.
  • The 813th Research Institute conducts research and design control and communications arrays for missiles, launch systems and satellites.
  • The 814th Research Institute, also known as the Xinguang Communications Factory, conducts research, design, and manufacture of communications systems.
  • The Shanghai Xinxin Machinery Factory manufactures propulsion systems.
  • The 149th Factory manufactures missiles and launch vehicles.
  • The 223 Factory, also known as the Shanghai Xinli Machinery Factory, manufactures missile propulsion systems.
  • The 244 Factory, also known as the Shanghai Xinyu Factory, manufactures energy systems.
  • The Shanghai Xinzhonghua Factory manufactures launch systems components.

Sources:
[1] Mark Stokes, “China’s Evolving Conventional Strategic Strike Capability: The Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile & Beyond,” Project 2049 Institute, 14 September 2009, http://project2049.net.
[2] “Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology [上海航天技术研究院],” China National Space Administration, 3 February 2006, www.cnsa.gov.cn.
[3] Joan Johnson-Freese, The Chinese Space Program: A Mystery within a Maze (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1998), p. 50.
[4] Mark A. Stokes and Dean Cheng, “China’s Evolving Space Capabilities: Implications for U.S. Interests,” Prepared for: the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, Project 2049 Institute, 26 April 2012; Joan Johnson-Freese, The Chinese Space Program: A Mystery within a Maze (Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1998), p. 71.
[5] Craig Covault, “Launcher Upgrade; China’s new Long March 4C has Upper Stage and Structural Improvements,” Aviation Week & Space Technology 20, vol. 167, 19 November 2007, p. 29.
[6] "China's Long March 4B Orbits Ziyuan I-02C Remote-Sensing Satellite," Satellite Today, 10, vol. 249, 23 December 2011.
[7] Bradley Perrett, “Long March 6 Development Smooth, Manufacturer Says,” Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, 32, vol. 236, 15 November 2010, p. 4.
[8] Bradley Perrett, “China Gives Some Performance Figures for Long March 6 and 7,” Aerospace Daily & Defense Report 24, vol. 241, 7 February 2012, p. 6.
[9] Evan S. Medeiros, et. al., “A New Dirction for China’s Defense Industry,” Project Air Force, the RAND Corporation, 2005.
[10] “Hongqi-61A,” Jane’s Naval Weapon Systems, 26 January 2012.
[11] “Lieying-60 (HQ-64/LY-60),” Jane’s Land-Based Air Defence, 18 August 2011, www.janes.ihs.com.
[12] “FN-6 (HY-6),” Jane’s Land Warfare Platforms: Artillery and Air Defence, 11 July 2011, www.janes.ihs.com.
[13] “Hongqi-2,” Jane’s Land-Based Air Defence, 15 October 2012, www.janes.ihs.com.
[14] “HN-5,” Jane’s Land-Based Air Defence, 18 November 2011, www.janes.ihs.com.
[15] United States Department of State, “Waiver of Missile Technology Proliferation Sanctions on Foreign Persons,” Federal Register, 59, Number 214, FR Doc No: 94-27470, 7 November 1994.
[16] “Partners,” China Great Wall Industry Corporation, www.cgwic.com.
[17] Rob Coppinger, “Moving Upwards”, Flight International, 14 February 2006.
[18] “SAST Chronology,” Encyclopedia Astronautica, www.astronautix.com.
[19] Mark Stokes, “China’s Evolving Conventional Strategic Strike Capability: The Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile & Beyond,” Project 2049 Institute, 14 September 2009, pp. 90-95, http://project2049.net.

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This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents.

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