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Sakr Factory for Developed Industries

Other Name: Factory 333; Sakr Factory
Location: Heliopolis
Subordinate To: Arab Organization for Industrialization (AOI)[1]
Size: Complex of factories, missile testing range
Facility Status: Operational, involved in missile production

Since its establishment in 1953, the Sakr Factory for Developed Industries has served as the primary facility for ballistic missile and long-range artillery rocket development in Egypt.[2] Although other factories assist with the procurement of missile parts and propellants, the Sakr Factory is currently Egypt's only known operating ballistic missile production facility,[3] with a primary function to design and develop ballistic missiles and long-range artillery rockets.[4] It also produces infrared guided surface-to-air missiles (SAM) such as Redeye, the Matra Magic air-to-air missiles (AAM), and anti-tank missiles.[5]

In 1960, Egypt constructed a missile testing and launch site at the Sakr factory, which still exists.[6] It became the primary facility for the development, production, and testing of the al-Kahir, al-Zafir, and al-Ra'id ballistic missiles.[7] As a result of efforts in the 1960s to develop the al-Zafir, al-Kahir, and al-Ra'id ballistic missiles, the Sakr Factory for Developed Industries has a range for the testing of ballistic missiles. [8]

According to press reports, in June 1990 Egypt signed an agreement with China to modernize the Sakr Factory. The agreement marked Cairo's first major deal with China and the beginning of closer military ties. It also enabled the Sakr Factory to produce newer versions of its Soviet anti-aircraft missiles, the surface-to-surface Scud-B and Silkworm, and the Egyptian Sakr rockets.[9 During the mid to late 1990s, with North Korean assistance, Egypt extended the range of the Scud Bs produced at the Sakr Factory.[10]

Sources:
[1] Hammam Nasr, "Egypt: Military Factories," International Market Insight, 1998, www.fas.org.
[2] Robert R. Ropelewski, "Improvisation Key to Egyptian Growth," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 November 1978, pp. 38-47.
[3] "Egypt: Production Capability," Jane's CBRN Assessments, 5 December 2008, www.janes.com.
[4] "Egypt: Production Capability," Jane's CBRN Assessments, 5 December 2008, www.janes.com.
[5] Andrew Rathmell, "Egypt's Military-Industrial Complex," Jane's Intelligence Review 6, No. 10, 1 October 1994, www.janes.com; Hammam Nasr, "Egypt: Military Factories," International Market Insight, 1998, www.fas.org.
[6] Anthony H. Cordesman, Arab-Israeli Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric Wars (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 196; Joseph Cirincione, Jon B. Wolfsthal, and Miriam Rajkumar, Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Threats, Second ed. (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005), p. 106.
[7] Robert R. Ropelewski, "Improvisation Key to Egyptian Growth," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 November 1978, pp. 38-47.
[8] Robert R. Ropelewski, "Improvisation Key to Egyptian Growth," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 November 1978, pp. 38-47.
[9] Adel Darwish, "China to update Egypt's Missiles," The Independent, 14 June 1990, p. 12; Anthony H. Cordesman, "Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East: Regional Trends, National Forces, Warfighting Capabilities, Delivery Options, and Weapons Effects," Center for Strategic and International Studies, 31 January 2002, pp. 21-22, www.csis.org.
[10] Bill Gertz, "CIA seeks missile data from defector," The Washington Times, 27 August 1997, Part A, p. A1.

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This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents.

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