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China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC)

Last Modified: July 12, 2012
Other Name: 中国核工业总公司; Ministry of Nuclear Industry; Second Ministry of Machine Building
Location: Beijing, China
Subordinate To: State-owned Assets Supervision & Administration Commission (SASAC)
Size: 100,000 staff members, including 36,000 specialized technical staff and 17 scholars of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering[1]
Facility Status: Operational

The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is involved in the development of China’s nuclear energy programs, both civilian and military. Comprised of over one hundred subsidiaries and research institutions, CNNC controls most nuclear sector business, including research and development, design, uranium exploration and mining, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal.[2]

On 16 September 1988 China’s National People’s Congress announced that the Ministry of Nuclear Industry (MNI) (formally the Second Ministry of Machine Building) would be reorganized into the CNNC.[3] This corporatization was part of a China’s larger restructuring of defense industries, with the intention of reducing the nuclear industry’s reliance on the government for financial support.[4] Chinese leaders encouraged the nuclear industry to export its products as a means of earning hard currency for the purchase of Western technology, and by 1990 CNNC had established trading relations with over 100 companies in over 40 countries.[5] By the mid-1990s, CNNC had grown to a corporation with 300,000 employees, and it managed over 200 enterprises and institutions.[6] At this point CNNC had a “virtual monopoly” on nuclear power development in China.[7]

In the 2000s CNNC began to face calls for reform and competition, most notably from State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC), which China’s State Council established in 2004. While SNPTC administered bidding by foreign companies for Generation III reactors for future nuclear development, CNNC under President Kang Rixin resisted such change and supported the development of the CNP-1000, a pressurized water reactor developed largely by the Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research & Design Institute (SNERDI). In 2009, President Kang was fired amid accusations “of squandering public funds and interfering with the bidding results of nuclear power projects." He was replaced by Sun Qin, CNNC’s current president.[8]

In June 2012, French firm Areva agreed to supply natural uranium to CNNC from 2012 to 2025.[9] The same month, the Chinese State Council Executive Meeting passed the “Nuclear Power Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention” of the twelfth Five Year Plan and the 2020 targets, with a view toward strengthening nuclear safety.[10]

CNNC’s current list of subsidies and member institutions is as follows:[11]

  •     China Nuclear Energy Industry Corporation (CNEIC)
  •     China Isotope Corporation
  •     China Zhongyuan Engineering Corporation
  •     Shenzhen CNNC Group
  •     Shanghai Puyuan Corporation, CNNC
  •     China Nuclear Instrumentation and Equipment Corporation
  •     China Materials Supply & Sales Corporation of Nuclear Industry (CMSSCNI)
  •     Qingyuan Environmental Technology Engineering Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     Financial Affairs Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     Fengyuan Uranium Enrichment Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     Hainan Haiyuan (Group) Co., Ltd.
  •     Shanghai Nuclear Equipment Compamy of CMSSCNI
  •     Qinshan Nuclear Power Corporation
  •     Nuclear Power Qinshan JV Corp., Ltd.
  •     Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company Ltd.
  •     Jiangsu Nuclear Power Company Ltd.
  •     Sanmen Nuclear Power Company Ltd.
  •     Lanzhou Uranium Enrichment Plant, CNNC
  •     Honghua Special Gas Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     Shanxi Hanzhong Uranium Enrichment Plant, CNNC
  •     Guanghua Chemical Industry Company, CNNC
  •     Jianzhong Chemical Industry Corporation, CNNC
  •     Gansu Huayuan Industrial Corporation, CNNC
  •     Wuzhou Industry Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     Hengyang Xinhua Chemical Industry & Milling Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     710 Plant, CNNC
  •     279 Plant, CNNC
  •     Ulumuqi Vehicle Repair Plant, CNNC
  •     720 Plant, CNNC
  •     Changchen Industrial Corporation, CNNC
  •     Yanning Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     Shenzhen Huayuan Industry Development Company, CNNC
  •     Shenzhen Kaili Industry Development Company, CNNC
  •     The 25th Construction & Installation Co., Ltd., CNNC
  •     Hebei Glucose Plant, CNNC
  •     Beijing Nuclear Instrument Factory, CNNC
  •     Xi’an Nuclear Instrument Factory, CNNC
  •     Shanghai Nuclear Instrument Factory, CNNC
  •     Shanghai Guanghua Instrument Factory, CNNC
  •     Wuhai Guangming Instrument Factory, CNNC
  •     Suzhou Optical Instrument Factory, CNNC
  •     Xi’an Nuclear Equipment Factory, CNNC
  •     Emei Nuclear Machinery Factory, CNNC
  •     Suzhou Valve Factory, CNNC
  •     Zhongnan Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Southwest Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Northwest Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Northeast Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Tianjing Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Zhengzhou Store & Trade Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Huadong Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Haerbin Company of CMSSCNI
  •     Beijing Jinghe Civil Goods Supply & Sales Company
  •     Motor Operation Technology Development Company, CNNC
  •     Beijing Huaqing Co., CNNC
  •     Beijing Lihuan Fire Protection Engineering Co., CNNC
  •     Beijing Yitong Medicine Engineering Development Co., CNNC
  •     Beijing Hehai He-Tc Development Co., CNNC
  •     Beijing Jingbao Co., CNNC
  •     Hainan Haiyuan Development Co., CNNC
  •     Beijing Store & Transportation Co. of CNEIC
  •     Beijing Beifang Biologic Technology Research Institute
  •     Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering, CNNC
  •     The 4th Research and Design Institute, CNNC
  •     The 5th Research and Design Institute, CNNC
  •     The 7th Research and Design Institute, CNNC
  •     China Institute of Atomic Energy
  •     Nuclear Power Institute of China
  •     Research Institute of Nuclear Power Operation
  •     Institute of Physico-Chemical Engineering, CNNC
  •     The 8th Research Institute, CNNC
  •     Beijing Geological Research Institute, CNNC
  •     Beijing Institute of Chemical Engineering & Metallurgy, CNNC
  •     The 6th Research Institute, CNNC
  •     Southwest Physics Institute, CNNC
  •     China Institute for Radiation Protection
  •     China Nuclear Information & Economic Research Institute
  •     Standardization Research Institute, CNNC
  •     Computer Application Research Institute, CNNC
  •     Dalian Applied Technology Institute, CNNC
  •     Nuclear No-Destructive Testing Centre, CNNC
  •     Consultation Centre for Science & Technology Development, CNNC
  •     Training Center, CNNC
  •     Graduate School, CNNC
  •     Business Affairs Centre, CNNC
  •     Nanlishilu Rest House
  •     China Nuclear Industry News Agency
  •     Nuclear Industry Archives Centre, CNNC
  •     Retired Personnel Bureau for the 221st Plant, CNNC
  •     Zhengzhou Cadre Rest Home, CNNC
  •     Xi’an Cadre Rest Home, CNNC
  •     The 415thHospital, CNNC
  •     The 416thHospital, CNNC
  •     The 417thHospital, CNNC
  •     The 419thHospital, CNNC
  •     Nuclear Industry Hospital, CNNC
  •     Beijing Nuclear Industry Hospital, CNNC
  •     Shenzhen Xiangmihu Friendship Hospital, CNNC
  •     Jiangxi Mining and Metallurgy Bureau, CNNC
  •     Mining and Metallurgy Bureau, CNNC
  •     Guangdong Mining and Metallurgy Bureau, CNNC
  •     Gansu Mining and Metallurgy Bureau, CNNC
  •     Xinjiang Mining and Metallurgy Bureau, CNNC
  •     Yun’nan Mining and Metallurgy Company, CNNC
  •     Guangdong mechanic School of Mining and Metallurgy, CNNC
  •     Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     Aerial Survey & Remote Sensing Centre of Nuclear Industry, CNNC
  •     The 208th Team of Northwest Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 216th Team of Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 243th Team of Northeast Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 203th Institute of Northwest Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 230th Institute of Central-South Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 240th Institute of Northeast Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 270th Institute of East China Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 280th Institute of Northwest Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     The 290th Institute of South China Geological Bureau, CNNC
  •     Hepingli Rest House, CNNC

Sources:
[1] “集团介绍 [Introduction to the Corporation],” China National Nuclear Corporation, www.cnnc.com.cn.
[2] “集团介绍 [Introduction to the Corporation],” China National Nuclear Corporation, www.cnnc.com.cn; “Government Structure and Ownership, Nuclear Power in China Appendix 1,” World Nuclear Association, July 2011, www.world-nuclear.org.
[3] Wen L. Hsu, “The Impact of Government Restructuring on Chinese Nuclear Arms Control and Nonproliferation Policymaking,” The Nonproliferation Review, Fall 1999, p. 155.
[4] Evan Medeiros, Reluctant Restraint: The Evolution of China’s Nonproliferation Policies and Practices, 1980-2004 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007), p. 76.
[5] Yan Kong, “China’s Nuclear Bureaucracy,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, 1 July 1993, p. 327.
[6] Wen L. Hsu, “The Impact of Government Restructuring on Chinese Nuclear Arms Control and Nonproliferation Policymaking,” The Nonproliferation Review, Fall 1999, p. 155.
[7] Mark Hibbs and Ann Maclachlan, “China’s Corruption Probe at CNNC May Be Expanding to Subsidiaries,” Nucleonics Week, 20 August 2009.
[8] Mark Hibbs and Ann Maclachlan, “China’s Corruption Probe at CNNC May Be Expanding to Subsidiaries,” Nucleonics Week, 20 August 2009.
[9] “Areva Signs a Series of Mining Agreements in China,” Areva, 1 June 2012, http://www.areva.com.
[10] “国务院常务会议原则按时发通过《核安全与放射性污染防治“十二五”规划及2020年远景部标》[Chinese State Council Executive Meeting Passed the Nuclear Power Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention Twelfth Five Year’s Plan and 2020 Targets]”, China Daily, 1 June 2012, www.chinadaily.com.cn.
[11] “Group Memberships,” China National Nuclear Corporation, www.cnnc.com.cn.

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This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents.

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