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Qinshan Nuclear Power Station

Last Modified: July 25, 2012
Other Name: Qinshan Nuclear Power Company, Ltd. (中核集团核电秦山联营有限公司); Qinshan Nuclear Power Base; Qinshan Nuclear Power Complex
Location: Haiyan County, Zhejiang Province, about 100 km southwest of Shanghai
Subordinate To: Qinshan Nuclear Power Company (QNPC), China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC); Nuclear Power Plant Qinshan Joint Venture Company Ltd.; Nuclear Power Qinshan JV Corporation, Ltd.; Qinshan Third Nuclear Power Company
Size: Six operational reactors, one reactor under construction
Facility Status: Operational

Qinshan’s reactors operate under Qinshan Nuclear Power Company, Ltd., a subsidiary of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), with 1,500 employees.[1]

Qinshan I
Units: 1
Status: Operational
Date of Grid Connection: 15 December 1991
Net Capacity: 298 MWe
Reactor Type: CNP-300 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)[2]

Operated by the Qinshan Nuclear Power Company, Qinshan I is China's first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant. Qinshan I is a 300 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a light water reactor cooling system and three radiation shields (zirconium cladding, pressure vessel, and containment). The CNP-300 reactor is “based on a design conceived by the U.S.' Westinghouse in the 1950s.”[3] During its first year of operation, Qinshan produced 1.74 billion kWh of electricity at an annual load factor of almost 65 percent. The total generated electricity of the station is over 35 trillion kWh.[4] The China Zhongyan Engineering Corporation is building a similar CNP-300 reactor at Chashma in Pakistan.[5] CNNC is also seeking to export CNP-300 to interested parties in Belarus and Africa. [6]

In January 1998 operators "had difficulties withdrawing the thimble device from a particular channel."[7] But, since operation was just within operational limits it was decided to continue operation until a scheduled shut down in July 1998. At that time, inspections revealed that the in-core neutron flux measuring device was damaged. After redesigning and replacing the damaged parts, the reactor went back into commercial operation on 25 September 1999. However, the plant was shut down again in April 2000 for ten days due to a leak in the soldering of the cooling system. The leak was not accompanied by a radiation leak.[8]

The facility was temporarily closed down in October 2007 for a major upgrade. The instrument and control systems were replaced as were a new reactor pressure vessel head and control rod drives.[9] Qinshan I is currently scheduled to close down in 2020.[10]

Qinshan II
Units: 4
Status: 4 operational units
Date of Grid Connection: 2 June 2002; 11 March 2004; 1 August 2010; 25 November 2011
Net Capacity: 4 x 610 MWe
Reactor Type: Two-loop CNP-600 PWR[11]

Units 1 and 2 are two-loop PWR reactors known as CNP-600 based on an improved design of the CNP-300 of Qinshan I.

CNNC announced in 2004 that it would expand with two more reactors known as CNP-1000s, however this plan was shelved in 2007.[12]

Qinshan III
Units: 2
Status: Operational
Date of Grid Connection: 19 November 2002; 12 June 2003
Net Capacity: 2 x 650 MWe
Reactor Type: CANDU-6 pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWR)[13]

Qinshan III is the first CANada Deuterium-Uranium-6 (CANDU-6) project in China to use open-top reactor building construction and the first in which a commercial nuclear power station uses two heavy water reactors. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is the general contractor for the $2.88 billion Qinshan III project, which is the largest business venture between Canada and China.[14]

Sources:
[1] “企业简介 [About Us],” Qinshan Nuclear Power Company, Ltd., www.qnpc.cn.
[2] “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 1,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org.
[3] David Biello, “China Forges Ahead with Nuclear Energy,” Nature News, 29 March 2011, www.nature.com.
[4] “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 1,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org.
[5] “Nuclear Power in China,” World Nuclear Association, 22 September 2011, www.world-nuclear.org.
[6] “Nuclear Power in China,” World Nuclear Association, 22 September 2011, www.world-nuclear.org.
[7] "Chinese Nuclear Reactor Was Shut Down After Leak in Cooling System," Agence France-Presse, 8 May 2000.
[8] “Chinese Nuclear Accident Revealed,” BBC, 5 July 1999, www.bbc.co.uk.
[9] “Nuclear Power in China,” World Nuclear Association, 22 September 2011, www.world-nuclear.org.
[10] Liu Yiyu, “New Nuclear Plants May Get Green Light Soon,” China Daily, 12 August 2011.
[11] “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 2-1,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org; “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 2-2,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org; “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 2-3,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org; “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 2-4,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org.
[12] “Nuclear Power in China,” World Nuclear Association, 22 September 2011, www.world-nuclear.org.
[13] “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 3-1,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org; “Nuclear Power Reactor Details - QINSHAN 3-2,” IAEA Power Reactor Information System, www.iaea.org.
[14] “Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd.,” China National Nuclear Corporation, http://www.cnnc.com.cn; “Qinshan Phase III: A Resounding Success,” Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, March 2006. www.aecl.ca.

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This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents.

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