Civilian HEU Dynamic Map

 

Updated: March 2016

Return to: Civilian HEU Reduction and Elimination Resource Collection

Sources:
[1] Pablo Adelfang, Ira Goldman, Adalberto Soares and E. Bradley, "Status and Progress of IAEA Activities on Research Reactor Conversion and Spent Fuel Return Programmes in the Years 2005-2006," paper presented at RERTR-2006, October 29 - November 2, 2006.
[2] David Albright and Kimberly Kramer, "ISIS Civil HEU Watch: Tracking Inventories of Civil Highly Enriched Uranium," August 2005, isis-online.org.
[3] The NNSA announced that it had successfully removed the last remaining 1kg of HEU from Jamaica and returned the material to the United States. This now makes the Caribbean HEU-Free. "NNSA removes U.S.-Origin HEU from Jamaica, makes the Caribbean HEU free," Your Nuclear News, September 22, 2015, www.yournuclearnews.com.
[4] Alexander Glaser and Frank N. von Hippel, "Global Cleanout: Reducing the Threat of HEU-Fueled Nuclear Terrorism," Arms Control Today, January/February 2006, www.armscontrol.org.
[5] CNS (Cristina Hansell) communication with official from National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), July 17, 2008.
[6] CNS (Cristina Hansell) e-mail communication with Ann MacLachlan, Platts Nuclear Publications, May 15, 2008.
[7] Declaration made August 28, 2015, data as of December 31, 2014, reported in: International Atomic Energy Agency, "Communication Received from France Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium: Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium," INFCIRC/549/Add.5/19, August 28, 2015, www.iaea.org.
[8] Declaration made August 28, 2015, data as of December 31, 2014, reported in: International Atomic Energy Agency, "Communication Received from Germany Concerning Its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium: Statements on the Management of Plutonium and of High Enriched Uranium," INFCIRC/549/Add.2/18, August 28, 2015, www.iaea.org.
[9] "Communication Received from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium," INFCIRC/549/Add.8/13, August 16, 2010.
[10] Imperial College Reactor Decommissioning, www3.imperial.ac.uk.
[11] International Panel on Fissile Materials, Global Fissile Material Report 2010, December 2010, www.fissilematerials.org.
[12] Sandor Tozser, "Uzbekistan Becomes HEU-Free Following Shipment of Fuel to Russia," IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy, September 28, 2015, www.iaea.org.
[13] NNSA, "Ahead of Nuclear Security Summit, NNSA Announces Removal of All Highly Enriched Uranium from Chile," April 8, 2010, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[14] NNSA, "All Highly Enriched Uranium Removed from Latvia," May 16, 2008, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[15] NNSA, "GTRI: More Than Three Years of Reducing Nuclear Threats," September 2007, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[16] NNSA, "GTRI: Reducing Nuclear Threats," NNSA press release, February 11, 2011, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[17] NNSA, "Final U.S.-Origin HEU Shipment from Australia Completed," NNSA Press Release, May 21, 2009, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[18] NNSA, "Highly Enriched Uranium. Removed from Hungary," NNSA Press Release, October 23, 2008, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[19] NNSA, "NNSA Achieves Milestone in Removal of HEU from Ukraine," NNSA Press Release, December 31, 2010, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[20] NNSA, "NNSA announces removal of more than 73 kilograms of Highly Enriched Uranium from Kazakhstan," NNSA press release, May 19, 2009, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[21] NNSA, "NNSA Cooperates with Argentina, South Africa and Ukraine to Convert Research Reactors," October 13, 2008, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[22] NNSA, "NNSA Completes Conversion of the Budapest Research Reactor and Removal of All Fresh HEU from Hungary," NNSA Press Release, September 15, 2009, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[23] NNSA, "NNSA Completes Largest Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Fuel Return Campaign in Program's History," NNSA Press Release, October 12, 2010, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[24] NNSA, "NNSA Completes Successful Year of U.S.-origin Nuclear Fuel Returns," NNSA Press Release, October 7, 2008, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[25] NNSA, "Nuclear and Radiological Material Removed from Japan, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark," July 3, 2008, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[26] NNSA, "Reactor Converted and Nuclear Material Removed in Vietnam," NNSA Press Release, September 17, 2007, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[27] William Potter, "Belarus Agrees to Remove All HEU," CNS Feature Story, December 1, 2010, www.nonproliferation.org.
[28] Parrish Staples, "The NNSA Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Efforts to Minimize the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium for Medical Isotope Production," RRFM 2010 Conference, Marrakech, Morocco, March 21-15, 2010.
[29] White House, "Trilateral Announcement Between Mexico, the United States, and Canada on Nuclear Security," April 13, 2010.
[30] World Nuclear News, "Final HEU Return from Turkey," January 14, 2010, www.world-nuclear-news.org.
[31] In the September 2015 GAO report, it was stated that the GTRI will assist in downblending the final 2kg of HEU in Argentina, www.gao.gov.
[32] In the September 2015 GAO report, it was stated that the GTRI will assist in downblending the final 3kg of HEU in Indonesia, www.gao.gov. However, according to the International Panel on Fissile Materials Indonesia has only about 1kg. Materials: Highly-enriched Uranium, September 21, 2015, http://fissilematerials.org.
[33] Note that the estimate for Pakistan's total HEU stockpile carries great uncertainty. Pakistan's PARR-2 research reactor operates with HEU. The country does not utilize HEU for naval propulsion. IPFM estimated in 2010 Pakistan's total HEU stocks were 1,800-4,200 kg total. See: International Panel on Fissile Materials (IPFM), Global Fissile Material Report 2013: Increasing Transparency of Nuclear Warhead and Fissile Material Stocks as a Step toward Disarmament, Princeton, 2013, p. 14, http://fissilematerials.org.
[34] The NNSA announced in September 2015 that upon the removal of the final 2.2kg of HEU to the United States, Switzerland had successfully removed all of its HEU. "Last HEU Removed from Switzerland under NNSA Collaboration," NNSA press release, September 16, 2015, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[35] The NNSA announced in September 2015 that upon the removal of the final 2.2kg of HEU to the United States, Switzerland had successfully removed all of its HEU. "Last HEU Removed from Switzerland under NNSA Collaboration," NNSA press release, September 16, 2015, http://nnsa.energy.gov.
[36] David Albright and Serena Kelleher-Vergantini, Civil HEU Watch: Tracking Inventories of Civil Highly Enriched Uranium, National and Global Stocks as of End of 2014, October 7, 2015.
[37] "Fact Sheet: Eliminating All Highly Enriched Uranium from Argentina," The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, April 1, 2016, www.whitehouse.gov.