Other Name: Karachi Nuclear Power Plant
Location: Approximately 25km west of Karachi, Sindh Province
Subordinate To: Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
Size: 125 MWe net
Facility Status: Operational

The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) is a 137 MWe Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) that is fueled by natural uranium. [1]

KANUPP was Pakistan's first nuclear power plant. After a May 1965 agreement between Canada and Pakistan, Canadian General Electric began construction of the reactor in September 1965, and the plant went into commercial operation in 1972. [2] Initially, Canada supplied Pakistan with heavy water and natural uranium fuel for KANUPP. [3] Following India's 1974 nuclear test and Pakistan's subsequent refusal to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Canada halted its supply of heavy water and fuel in 1976. [4] As a result, Pakistan has been indigenously fabricating fuel since 1980. [5]

After KANUPP completed its nominal design life of 30 years in 2002, the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Agency (PNRA) extended its operation to 2012. [6] Throughout the PAEC's numerous safety and operational upgrades for relicensing requirements, KANUPP has operated at 50MW. [7] Pakistan signed a safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1969, and the facility currently remains under safeguards. [8]

[1] Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, "Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP)," www.paec.gov.pk.
[2] International Atomic Energy Agency, "Pakistan," IAEA Country Nuclear Profiles, 2009 Edition, http://pub.iaea.org; Jeffrey T. Richelson, Spying on the Bomb (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007), p. 327.
[3] P.L. Bhola, Pakistan's Nuclear Policy (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1993), p. 27.
[4] Global Fissile Material Report 2010, Chapter 10, International Panel on Fissile Materials, December 2010, www.fissilematerials.org; International Atomic Energy Agency, "Pakistan," IAEA Country Nuclear Profiles, 2009 Edition, http://pub.iaea.org.
[5] Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, "Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) - About," www.paec.gov.pk.
[6] "KANUPP Gets 10 Year Extension," Nuclear Engineering International, 16 December 1999.
[7] "Pakistan's Karachi nuclear power plant 'back in operation,'" BBC Worldwide Monitoring – South Asia, 4 December 2006; Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, "KANUPP," www.pnra.org.
[8] International Atomic Energy Agency, "Status List: Conclusion of Safeguards Agreements, Additional Protocols and Small Quantities Protocols," 4 March 2011, www.iaea.org.

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This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents. Copyright 2016.