|Last Updated:||January 1, 2011|
|Other Name:||Mishor Rotem; Negev Phosphates Chemicals Company|
|Location:||Approximately 15km east of Dimona, Israel|
|Subordinate To:||Israel Chemicals Ltd.|
|Size:||Two sulfuric acid plants, three mining sites|
According to the Nuclear Engineering International Industry Handbook, the Negev Phosphates Chemicals Company extracts uranium from phosphate ores at a plant adjacent to the Negev Nuclear Research Center.  In 1991, the company merged with Rotem Fertilizers Ltd. and Amfert B.V. to become Rotem Amfert Negev Ltd. The company mines phosphates at three sites in the Negev Desert: Arad, Zin, and Oron.  The three mines' combined annual yield is approximately 5.5 million tons of phosphate ore. 
The Negev Desert holds between 30,000 and 60,000 tons of uranium contained within low-level phosphate ores.  In 1949 Science Corps C, a special unit of the Israel Defense Force's Science Corps began a two-year geological survey of the Negev desert in search of uranium. Science Corps C perfected a process for extracting uranium from phosphate deposits by 1953.  Despite this, domestic production amounts to only 10 tons per year, making the import of natural uranium necessary to sustaining the nuclear program.
 "Israel's Nuclear Production Capability," Jane's CBRN Assessments, 1 Dec. 2009, www.janes.com.
 Tom Zoellner, Uranium: War, Energy and the Rock That Shaped the World (New York: Penguin Books, 2009), p. 106; "The phosphates deposits of Israel: Overview," Geological Survey of Israel, Accessed 14 December 2010, www.gsi.gov.il.
 Raymond Cantrell, "Phosphate Rock," United States Geological Survey, Phosphate Rock Statistics and Information, Accessed 14 December 2010, minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/phosphate_rock/index.html#mcs.
Franz J. Dahlkamp, Uranium Deposits of the World: Asia (Berlin: Springer, 2009), p. 451; "Data 1. Israel Nuclear Fuel Cycle," in Arms Control Reporter: A Chronicle of Treaties, Negotiations, Proposals, Weapons and Policy, ed. Randall C. Forsberg (Cambridge, MA: Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies, 2006), p. 296.
 Ephraim Kahaha, Historical Dictionary of Israeli Intelligence (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2006), p. 216.