|Last Updated:||September 27, 2011|
|Location:||Chaklala Cantt, Rawalpindi|
|Subordinate To:||Defense Production Division, Ministry of Defense|
The Pakistan Ministry of Defense Production conducts the bulk of its research and development at the Defense Science and Technology Organization (DESTO).  The DESTO pursues scientific and technical research and development on weapons systems over a variety of disciplines, including aerodynamics, propulsion and propellants, and avionics.
After Pakistan’s 1998 nuclear tests, the Clinton Administration sanctioned DESTO for involvement in Pakistan's nuclear and missile programs. However, the details of its alleged contributions to Pakistan's ballistic missile programs remain classified.  President George W. Bush waived the sanctions on DESTO in 2001 to facilitate post-September 11 cooperation with Pakistan. 
 “Pakistan Arms Industry,” Pakistan Military Consortium, accessed 28 January 2011, www.pakdef.info.
 “India and Pakistan Sanctions and Other Measures,” 63 Federal Register 223 (19 November, 1998), pp. 64322-64342.
 “Presidential Determination No. 2001-28 of September 22, 2001: Waiver of Nuclear-Related Sanctions on India and Pakistan, Memorandum for the Secretary of State,” 66 Federal Register 191 (2 October 2001), p. 50095; “India and Pakistan: Lifting of Sanctions, Removal of Indian and Pakistani Entities, and Revision in License Review Policy,” 66 Federal Register 190 (1 October 2001), p. 50090, and Dianne E. Rennack, India and Pakistan: U.S. Economic Sanctions, CRS Report to Congress RS20995 (Washington, DC: The Library of Congress, 3 February 2003).