Treaties & Regimes

Below you will find information on treaties, organizations, and regimes relating to disarmament, arms control, and nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Information on each treaty or organization includes relevant full text documents, country memberships, an analytical overview, and a chronology tracking ongoing work and related developments. All entries are updated regularly, as events warrant. This material was prepared for the NTI site by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.

Treaties Regimes

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A

  • African Union (AU)

    The African Union was established to promote the unity and solidarity of African countries, defend state sovereignty, eradicate colonialism, promote international cooperation, and coordinate and harmonize Member States’ policies.

  • Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)

    OPANAL is an inter-governmental organization that ensures that the obligations of the Treaty of Tlatelolco are met, by organizing conferences and consultations and overseeing adherence to the Control System.

  • Arms Control and Regional Security in the Middle East (ACRS)

    ACRS was created in 1991; it is a forum in which thirteen Arab States, Israel, a Palestinian delegation, and several other entities focus on confidence-building and arms control measures.

  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

    ASEAN was established in August 1967 with the purpose of accelerating the economic growth, social progress, and cultural development in the region, and promoting regional peace and stability.

  • Australia Group (AG)

    The Australia Group is an informal association of 41 member states that aims to allow exporters or transshipment countries to minimize the risk of proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

B

C

  • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

    The CIS is an association that coordinates the facilitation of free movement of goods, services, labor force, and capital between member states. It also promotes cooperation on security matters.

  • Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC)

    CELAC is a regional bloc that aims to unite, strengthen, and promote the interests of Latin American and Caribbean states. It is a successor of the Rio Group and the 2nd Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC).

  • Conference on Disarmament (CD)

    The Conference on Disarmament (CD) is the multilateral disarmament negotiating forum of the international community. The CD and its predecessors have negotiated many multilateral arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament agreements.

E

  • Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)

    The Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council is intended to bring together the NATO Allies and other Partners in a forum providing for regular consultation and cooperation.

  • European Union (EU)

    The EU aims to promote economic and social progress in Europe; to introduce European citizenship; and to develop an area of freedom, security, and justice, among other objectives.

G

H

I

  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the international center for nuclear cooperation and promotes safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies through cooperation with its 151 Member States.

  • International Science and Technology Center (ISTC)

    The ISTC is an intergovernmental organization that serves as a clearinghouse for projects that engage weapons scientists, technicians, and engineers from the CIS in civilian science and technology activities.

K

M

  • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

    The MTCR was established as an informal, non-treaty association of governments sharing common interests in the nonproliferation of missiles, unmanned air vehicles, and related technologies. It has 34 member states.

N

  • New Agenda Coalition

    In June 1998, the foreign ministers of Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovenia, South Africa, and Sweden issued a statement calling for a new nuclear disarmament agenda. (Slovenia and Sweden later withdrew from the NAC.) The NAC called for the five nuclear-weapon states and the three nuclear-capable states to make an unequivocal commitment to nuclear disarmament and to begin multilateral negotiations that would lead to the elimination of nuclear weapons through a Nuclear Weapons Convention.

  • Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

    Created in 1961, NAM has sought to “create an independent path in world politics that would not result in member States becoming pawns in the struggles between the major powers.”

  • Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI)

    Founded in September 2010, the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) is a ministerial-level group of states within the framework of the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) focused on practical steps that will promote the consensus outcomes of the 2010 NPT Review Conference. It aims to achieve a number of goals, first among them advancement of the nuclear disarmament agenda and greater transparency in the way nuclear weapons states fulfill their disarmament commitments.

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    NATO was founded in 1949 and has 28 Alliance Members. Its member countries are committed to sharing the risks and responsibilities as well as the benefits of collective security.

  • Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

    The NEA is a specialized agency within OECD whose objective is to assist Member countries in maintaining and developing nuclear energy as a safe, environmentally acceptable, and economical energy source.

  • Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

    The NSG is a group of 46 supplier countries that works for nuclear nonproliferation by implementing two sets of Guidelines for nuclear and nuclear-related exports. It first met in 1975.

O

  • Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe (OSCE)

    The OSCE is the world’s largest security organization with 56 member states. It deals with a wide range of security-related concerns, including arms control, nonproliferation, counterterrorism, democratization, and human rights.

  • Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

    The OPCW is the implementing body of the CWC; its mandate is to ensure implementation including verification measures and furnish a forum for consultation and cooperation among States Parties.

  • Organization of American States (OAS)

    OAS consists of 35 independent states of the Americas who seek to establish and maintain peace and justice, promote solidarity, strengthen collaboration, and defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence.

P

R

  • Rio Group

    The Rio Group is an association of 23 Latin American countries that seek, among other foreign policy issues, prevention of the introduction of WMD in Latin America and the Caribbean.

S

U

  • United Nations

    The central mission of the UN is to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations and promote social progress, better living standards and human rights.

  • United Nations First Committee

    The First Committee of the UNGA debates disarmament, nonproliferation, arms control, and international security issues, recommending resolutions and decisions for adoption by the plenary session of the UNGA.

  • United Nations General Assembly

    The UNGA considers general principles of cooperation in international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and arms regulation, and makes recommendations to Member States or the Security Council.

  • United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs

    UNODA provides support to Member States on disarmament issues. It fosters preventive measures, such as dialogue, transparency, and confidence-building; encourages regional disarmament efforts; and provides information on UN disarmament efforts.

  • United Nations Security Council

    The UNSC is one of the main deliberative UN organs for security issues. It is the only UN organ that can pass legally binding resolutions.

W

  • Wassenaar Arrangement

    The Wassenaar Arrangement is an export control regime with 41 participating states that promotes transparency of national export control regimes on conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies.

Z

  • Zangger Committee (ZAC)

    The Committee consists of 38 states and establishes guidelines for implementing export control provisions. The Committee established a Trigger List of items that are subject to IAEA safeguard inspections.