International Science and Technology Center (ISTC)
Parties to the ISTC Agreement: Armenia, Belarus, Canada, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Tajikistan, European Union (EU), Japan, Russia, United States, Norway, and Republic of Korea.
Background: The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization established in 1992 by an agreement between the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the United States. It was signed in Moscow in 1992 and provisionally entered into force on 2 March 1994, pending ratification by the Duma.
The ISTC serves as a clearinghouse for developing, approving, financing, and monitoring projects aimed at engaging weapons scientists, technicians, and engineers from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in peaceful, civilian science and technology activities. Non-weapons scientists can be included. Through its projects, the ISTC contributes to ongoing efforts to stem the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Its larger goals include reinforcing the CIS transition to a market-based economy responsive to civilian needs, and supporting basic and applied research and technology development.
The operating bodies of the ISTC are the governing board, Coordination Committee, Science Advisory Committee, and secretariat (the executive body located in Moscow). ISTC branch offices have been set up in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan with a coordination office in Tbilisi.
ISTC (Moscow) Activity and Objectives: The agreement establishing the ISTC stipulates that the center's principal activity is to develop, approve, finance, and monitor science and technology projects for peaceful purposes, which are to be carried out primarily at institutions and facilities located in the Russian Federation and in other states of the Newly Independent States (NIS). The primary objectives of the center are: 1) to give weapons scientists and engineers, particularly those in the NIS who possess knowledge and skills related to WMD or missile delivery systems, opportunities to redirect their talents toward peaceful activities; and 2) to contribute to the solution of national or international technical problems in relation to the transition to market-based economies. This is achieved by supporting basic and applied research and technology development in the fields of environmental protection, energy production, and nuclear safety; and promoting the further integration of NIS scientists into the international scientific community. The Center publishes annual reports on its activities.
2013: On 21 February, the ISTC participated in the Nano Tech 2013 International Exhibition in Tokyo, Japan.
On 25 June, the ISTC Executive Director Leo Owsiacki, the EU Head of Delegation to Tajikistan, and the President of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan formally opened the Bio-safety and Bio-security Training Centre in Dushanbe. The Center is the outcome of ISTC project T-1998.
The 16th Seminar “Energy Security, How to Further the Technology” will be held by the Scientific Advisory Committee of the ISTC in Almaty, Kazakhstan from 22 – 23 October.
On 26 June, the Governing Board of the ISTC held its 57th meeting in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. During the conference, the Canadian Party formally issued its notice of withdrawal from the ISTC. Furthermore, the ISTC set budget and priorities for future action during the conference.
From 26-31 October, the ISTC organized the Japan -Russia International Workshop on Infectious Diseases - New Aspects of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. During the conference Japanese and Russian experts discussed the current situation regarding infectious diseases, as well as new treatments and research.
2012: From 3-4 February, ISTC scientists attended a symposium in Tokyo and Fukushima to share technical knowledge in soil rehabilitation and land remediation, based in particular on knowledge acquired after the accident at Chernobyl. The symposium was co-organized by the ISTC, the Japanese government, and the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU).
From 8-10 March in Koriyama, Japan, ISTC scientists presented farmland decontamination techniques to Japanese researchers on the anniversary of the earthquake and Fukushima accident.
On 9 March the ISTC participated in a seminar in Rome to prepare for the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. The seminar focused in particular on the "human dimension" of nonproliferation. The ISTC presented successful nuclear detection device projects it had funded as models to limit illicit trafficking.
From 16-17 May in Almaty, Kazakhstan, the ISTC held a workshop on efforts to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials in Central Asia. Participants in the workshop discussed national strategies to prevent illicit trafficking as well as regional needs in nuclear forensics, particularly the need for greater training. They also discussed potential joint research or development projects.
From 21-22 May in Bishkek, Kazakhstan, the ISTC held a workshop to discuss national and regional efforts to increase biosecurity and biosafety. Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy provided technical advice.
On 1 June the ISTC issued a call to scientists and institutions in Central Asia for project proposals related to decontamination, rehabilitation, and monitoring of the cleanup of the Fukushima accident.
On 11-12 December, the ISTC, in conjunction with the STCU, held a Technical Working Group Meeting on the environmental assessment for long term monitoring and remediation in and around Fukushima. Researchers from Japan, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, and other CIS countries discussed how ISTC/STCU projects could aid in the long-term environmental monitoring and remediation of the Fukushima NPP Accident.
2011: From the 26th to the 27th of January the ISTC, in collaboration with the IAEA, World Health Organization (WHO), and the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), met for their second workshop. The workshop involved the exchange of vital information and skills on cytogenic biodosimetry and chromosome analysis for victims of radiological exposure. This collaboration between Asian states and ISTC members was aimed to explore methods against mass casualties due to radiation.
On March 30 Executive Director Adriaan van der Meer visited Tajikistan for a Working Conference. The purpose of the visit was to examine the results of ISTC funding in the areas of hepatitis and radioactive waste. In total the ISTC has had more than 40 projects in Tajikistan.
On 3 April in Moscow ISTC briefed the International Congress of Industrialization and Entrepreneurs on the innovations in the business, as well as new methods for skills enhancements. Finally, the briefing emphasized the new matches between Russian and bilateral business partners.
On 20 April the results of the ISTC's work done in Japan after the 3/11/11 Fukushima incident were released. Outcomes included remediation of contaminated areas, control of polluted water, and specialized aid due to radiological impacts.
On 9 June Thomas D'Agostino, U.S. Department of Energy Undersecretary and administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), visited ISTC to discuss areas of possible cooperation. Suggestions included exchange of new developments of nuclear material detectors.
On 28 June, the Governing Board’s 53th meeting in Moscow began, and was chaired by Ronald F. Lehman II. The multilateral framework and scientific cooperation between the EU and CIS states was a prominent discussion. The board unanimously voted to allow the facility to continue to oversee and host scientific events until 2015. Despite Russia’s decision to withdraw from the facility, this withdrawal is not expected to take place until 2015 so that the Russian scientists and researchers in the center can complete their projects as intended. The board debated merging the center with its sister organization, the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine, before deciding to allow it to continue.
The board also decided to shift the main facility’s activities to the branch office of the ISTC in Kazakhstan. A concrete decision was made on the extension of Ronald F. Lehman’s term in office until March 2013, and the board also voted to allocate $2 million to assist in cleanup in Fukushima.
On 13 July, ISTC scientists announced they had developed a new technique to clean up sites infected with anthrax. The new technique may help clean up the thousands of anthrax burial sites throughout the former Soviet Union and in cases of biological attacks.
On 30 September, the ISTC provided 9 million USD to monitor and decontaminate the Semipalatinsk nuclear site in Kazakhstan. The donation will help to eliminate the consequences of nuclear testing, for both livestock and the population, as well as rehabilitate the land around the site.
On 10-14 October, the ISTC and INTERPOL jointly conducted a Regional Biosecurity Course in Kazakhstan. The course aimed to enhance bioterrorism response and prevention capabilities in the Caucasus and Central Asia regions.
On 12 December, the Governing Board released a statement concerning its 54th meeting. Most of the discussion focused on the consequences of announcement made by the the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation that Russia would be withdrawing from the ISTC by 2015.
2010: On 11 August 2010, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree confirming Russia's intention to withdraw from the agreement on the establishing of the ISTC, and from the protocol on temporary application of the ISTC foundation agreement.
A formal decision detailing the logistics of the withdrawal, including future financial support, has not been made yet.
Under the terms of the agreement that established the center, the main facility in Moscow would have at most six months left to operate once Russia issues a formal withdrawal declaration.
According to the ISTC executive director, in 2010, the Center awarded $25.5 million in grants to over 11,000 scientists. In 2010, there were 448 continuing projects, 342 of them in Russia.
On 9 December, ISTC Governing Board held its 52nd meeting and discussed a number of organizational and funding issues. Regarding the announcement concerning future withdrawal of the Russian Federation, it was noted that for all the ongoing projects in Russia to be completed in a normal fashion, the country should not withdraw earlier than the end of 2014. Representatives of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan also assured the Board that all current and future projects on their respective territories will be completed in accordance with the agreement on ISTC, regardless of the Russian actions concerning its membership.
The next Plenary Session of the Governing Board is scheduled to take place in Moscow on 30 June, 2011.
2007: On 29 January, representatives from the ISTC and the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) met in Moscow to discuss future cooperation between the two organizations. The groups discussed cooperation on a variety of issues including workshops, training, and commercialization of scientists.
The 42nd Governing Board Meeting was held in Moscow on 30 March The board approved $1.3 million and €4.6 million for 22 new projects in research and development in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia. The board also received notification of Switzerland's intention to accede to the ISTC, and the formal approval will take place at a future meeting. In addition, the board discussed developing the relationship between the ISTC and the STCU as a means of improving administrative efficiency and collaboration on scientific and technical projects.
2006: On 30 March 2006, the Governing Board and 11 ISTC parties held the 39th meeting in Moscow. The Governing Board approved over $5.6 million for new projects in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. Furthermore, the board approved a list of 10 science and technology issues that need to be enhanced and improved.
On 28 June 2006, the Governing Board and 11 ISTC party members held their 40th meeting in Yerevan, Armenia. Party members approved $4.8 million for 30 new projects in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. Notably, the ISTC reconsidered the Project Proposal Package, which works to provide more detailed explanations of existing procedures and ISTC-STCU projects.
The 41st Governing Board meeting was held on 7 December, 2006 in Moscow. Twelve ISTC members joined the Governing Board. To further develop science and technology research, the board approved $3.9 million for 31 new projects in Russia, Belarus, Tajikistan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. Additionally, the FY 2007 Administrative Operating Budget and Supplemental Budget Program was approved by the board. In order to emphasize the ISTC's role in international nonproliferation, the board asked the secretariat to assess the results of the ISTC's operations and to develop a Strategic Plan congruent with ISTC standards.
The board decided the next Plenary Session will convene on 29 March 2007.
2005: The governing board held its 36th meeting in Almaty, Kazakhstan on 11 April. Representatives from 12 ISTC parties attended with Canada, the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, and Tajikistan represented on the governing board. Tajikistan participated as rotating CIS board member.
The ISTC approved 24 new projects representing more than $1.8 million and 3.5 million Euro in new funding for activities in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Republic of Tajikistan. These projects highlight important areas of science and technology research and development: studies of plague antigens, early cancer diagnostics, safe usage and storage of industrial fuels, and sensors for detection of contraband and dangerous materials.
The governing board approved the principles of a new administrative operating budget, allowing for costs to be attributed to specific program activities.
On 12 September, ISTC organized a workshop for key representatives from 10 of Russia's foremost closed nuclear cities and representatives from Canada, the EU, Japan, Russia, the UK and the United States. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss increasing and possibly expanding current bilateral cooperation between these countries and Russia's closed nuclear cities, as well as investigating the potential role that ISTC can play on behalf of the countries that support nonproliferation funding through the promotion of economically sustainable jobs, especially for former weapons specialists.
Topics raised at the workshop ranged from the need for greater data and information sharing, to increased cooperation between parties and a greater ISTC role in closed nuclear cities initiatives. There was also an emphasis on the need for identification and analysis of past measures and results.
The 38th meeting was held by the board on 28 October in Moscow, Russia. Representatives from 12 ISTC parties attended, with Armenia as rotating CIS board member. The ISTC approved 39 new projects representing more than $5.5 million and 4.3 million Euro in new funding for activities in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. These projects highlight important areas of science and technology research and development, such as the gravity field, new semiconductors, air pollution control, X-ray optics, and biosensors for medical purposes.
The governing board reconfirmed the importance of nonproliferation projects in Russia's closed nuclear cities under the provisions of the ISTC Agreement, focused on WMD specialists' transition to sustainable, civilian employment. In terms of practical implementation, the governing board entrusted the secretariat to work closely with the Russian side to prepare concrete activity proposals.
The governing board also approved the programmatic approach policy, which would support the ISTC parties' efforts to assist in achieving sustainability (e.g., through "Targeted Initiatives" with innovation potential).
The governing board agreed to convene its next plenary session meeting in Moscow on 30 March 2006.
2004: The 33rd ISTC governing board meeting convened in Moscow on 5 April. Canada, which became the 13th party to the ISTC Agreement on 1 March, participated as a full member for the first time. Members approved $10.6 million in funding for 59 new projects in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, and Kazakhstan. These will include the study and development of anti-viral treatments, energetic systems for space exploration, solid waste safety and disposal, and neutrino and nuclear physics. Board members also announced that 22 new partner projects totaling $8 million had been approved since the last governing board meeting, and that cumulative project funding exceeded $595 million.
On 16 April, Norbert Jousten began a two-year term as executive director of the ISTC. The following month, the ISTC announced that with the expansion of the European Union, it would begin accepting project collaborators from all new Member States.
The 34th Project Funding session concluded on 19 July with the approval of 25 new projects totaling $2 million. They will be carried out in Russia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. The next plenary session of the governing board is scheduled for 27 October in Moscow.
2003: The Republic of Tajikistan formally acceded to the ISTC on 5 March, becoming a full member. On 31 March, the 30th session of the ISTC governing board commenced in Moscow. The Kyrgyz Republic occupied the board's rotating seat. Board members approved 49 new projects totaling $8.1 million for activities in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Republic of Tajikistan. These will focus on radiation waste immobilization, vaccines, trace detection technologies for narcotics and explosives, and other topics. The governing board also announced that 25 partner projects representing $21 million had been approved since the last meeting. During the summer months, the ISTC completed its electronic project approval and 31st Project Funding session, approving an additional 38 new projects representative of more than $7 million.
The 32nd meeting of the governing board convened in Moscow on 20 October. Board members approved 65 new projects representing $9.9 million for activities in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and the Republic of Tajikistan. Additionally, they announced that 47 additional partner projects representing $18 million had been approved since the previous board meeting.
Two new initiatives in programmatic science were also addressed in 2003: the Fuel Cell Initiative to introduce commercial, fuel cell-based power plants to the market, which received the governing board's approval, and the development of international science laboratories. Regarding the latter, the ISTC, in cooperation with the Stepanov Institute of Physics in Belarus and the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing in Germany, established the first International Science Center in Minsk as a means to further integrate former weapons scientists into the scientific community. In addition, the ISTC participated in and presented its work to an EU Inter-parliamentary Conference on the G-8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Strasbourg, France from 20-21 November.
2002: The governing board of the ISTC held its 27th meeting in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, from
7-9 April. Representatives from 10 ISTC parties attended with the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States, and Georgia represented on the governing board.
The ISTC approved 61 new projects representing over $10.4 million and Euro 7.2 million in new funding for activities in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. New funding was provided by the EU, the United States, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. These projects included important areas of science and technology research and development; diagnostic methods and equipment for cancer; portable radiation monitors; desert climate studies; biotreatment for oil spills; aerosol vaccines for wildlife; greenhouse gas impact; and new carbon and aluminum content materials.
The board announced that 54 partner projects totaling $13.5 million had been approved since the previous meeting, and noted the expanding participation of partners in ISTC activities. ISTC partners are private sector, intergovernmental, governmental, and non-governmental organizations that provide funds to engage CIS scientists in peaceful research projects. Total ISTC project funding in all categories surpassed $416 million for 1,587 projects.
The governing board approved important steps in the ISTC "Evolution to Partnership," strengthening ISTC contributions to international science cooperation and sustainable partnership. The ISTC will inaugurate International Science Laboratories as a test case for establishing long-term cooperative exchanges based in institutes supported by ISTC. The center will introduce Chief Science Coordinators to promote and coordinate ISTC inputs to initiatives identified by its parties and partners, as part of its updated staffing plan and policy. The ISTC evolution is supported by the governing board's approval of early phases in ISTC progression to ISO 9000 certification.
The governing board expressed its gratitude for Georgia's participation on the governing board, and welcomed the Republic of Belarus' participation through 2002. The governing board extended the appointment of the Executive Director, Michael Kroening, for a one-year period through October 2003, and approved the nomination of Lawrence Wright in the position of Deputy Executive Director (United States).
On 23 October, the governing board held its 29th meeting in Moscow. Representatives from 10 ISTC parties attended, with the EU, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States, and Belarus represented on the governing board. The board welcomed the Republic of Tajikistan on its accession to the ISTC Agreement and received a request to join from the government of Moldova.
The ISTC approved 60 new projects representing over $9.9 million and Euro 8 million in new funding for activities in Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. New funding was provided by the EU, the United States, and the Republic of Korea. These projects included important areas of science and technology research and development, development of nanostructured materials, tumor thermoradiotherapy enhancement, and the impact of supersonic aircraft on the environment. The board announced that 50 partner projects totaling $28.8 million had been approved since the previous meeting and noted the expanding participation of partners in ISTC activities. The governing board approved important steps in the ISTC adjustment towards a programmatic approach to its activities, strengthening ISTC contributions to international science cooperation and sustainable partnership. The ISTC inaugurated International Science Laboratories as a test case for establishing long-term cooperative exchanges based in institutes supported by the ISTC. The center will introduce Chief Science Coordinators to promote and coordinate ISTC inputs to initiatives identified by its parties and partners, as part of its updated staffing plan and policy.
The governing board approved the continuation of Dr. Ronald F. Lehman, II as the governing board chair for one year. The governing board will convene at an executive session meeting in Paris from 3-4 February 2003.
The governing board agreed to hold its next plenary session in Moscow with a Coordination Committee meeting beginning from 24 March, and with a governing board meeting beginning from 26 March 2003.
2001: On 22 October, the governing board held its 25th meeting in Moscow. Representatives from the ISTC parties attended with the EU, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States, and Georgia represented on the governing board. In light of the terrorist events of 11 September, the parties affirmed their commitments to the nonproliferation and security goals of the center. The center approved 76 new projects representing over $16.5 million and Euro 7.3 million in new funding. These projects included anthrax and tuberculosis vaccines, nuclear waste containment, magnetic resonance techniques for drug development, solar cell materials and efficient energy transport, environmental impact of sea-buried reactor fuels, digital processing of biomedical signals, and design structures resistant to earthquakes. The board announced that 65 partner projects totaling $18.2 million had been approved since the 24th meeting, and noted the expanding participation of intergovernmental, governmental, and non-governmental organizations (including the private sector) partners in ISTC activities. Total ISTC project funding in all categories now surpasses $388 million for 1,434 projects. The Fiscal Year 2002 activity plan and budget for the center was approved and,
in a special session devoted to the ISTC present structure, the board discussed measures to improve ISTC's efficiency. The ISTC Coordination Executive Committee was instructed to develop, with the executive director, the reorganization of the secretariat.
On 9-10 October, there was a joint Samsung-ISTC Forum to present Russian/CIS technologies for applications in the Samsung product line. Technical sessions were devoted to materials and devices for electronics, micro-and nano-technology, optical technology, and information technology. On 17 May, the ISTC hosted a press conference "New Internet Portal Promoting Russian Science and Technology Innovation." Five major science and innovation organizations announced their joint commitment to a new Internet portal, promoting Russian-source science, technology, and innovation. Participating organizations include: ISTC, Euro-Asian Physical Society, Center of High Technologies under the Ministry of Atomic Energy, State Conversion Foundation, and Scientific Projects and Internet Technologies Company. Additional portal services will be provided by the NeurOK Company.
The 24th meeting of the governing board was held on 15 March. The ISTC approved 62 new projects representing nearly $13 million in new funding for activities. Projects included air quality monitoring by infrared laser, new collagen burn treatments, non-toxic gas generators for automobile airbags, screening of new antibiotics, ultrasonic defecto-scope for quality control in industry, and new testing methods for high-efficiency civil transportation. The board announced that 35 partner projects totaling $12.5 million had been approved since the 23rd meeting. The governing board agreed to a process of rotation of the CIS member seat based on the date of accession to the ISTC, and welcomed Georgia to participate on the governing board through the next year. Belarus and then the Kyrgyz Republic succeeded Georgia on the board.
2000: On 3 November, the governing board held its 23rd meeting at the headquarters in Moscow. Representatives from all 11 ISTC parties attended, with the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States, and the Republic of Armenia represented on the governing board. The ISTC approved 89 new projects representing over $21 million in new funding. These projects included monitoring and prediction of seismic activity, pre-clinical testing of immuno-biological compounds, atmospheric re-entry technologies for scientific probes, chemical micro-sensors for atmospheric pollution monitoring, and creation of wind energy infrastructure. The board announced that 23 partner projects totaling $3 million had been approved since the 22nd meeting, and noted the expanding participation of partners in ISTC activities.
The governing board held its 22nd meeting at the presidential residence in Tbilisi from 26-27 June. Representatives from 10 ISTC parties attended with the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States, and the Republic of Armenia represented on the governing board. The ISTC approved 81 new projects representing over $19 million in new funding for activities. These projects included protective methods against anthrax, new techniques for nuclear test detection, nuclear reactor decommissioning in Kazakhstan, bio-remediation of testing grounds, vortex flow investigations for flight safety, and water-cutting technologies for submarine decommissioning.
The board announced that 21 partner projects totaling $4 million had been approved since the 21st meeting. The governing board addressed financial and operating issues for the center, toward ensuring the integrity and timely implementation of ISTC activities in all party territories. The center continued to develop appropriate frameworks to protect it from currency fluctuations, and to include year-round financing commitments. It also sought new funding from ISTC parties and partners, to ensure the continuity of the many projects and programs.
1994-1999: The ISTC began operations on 3 March 1994. A total of $75 million was raised for the Moscow Center: $25 million from the United States, 20 million ECU from the European Commission, and $17 million from Japan. Russia is to provide in-kind support to include a facility for the center, as well as its maintenance, utilities, security, and related support. The Governing Board met in Moscow from 8-9 December, during which time representatives of new funding parties, Finland and Sweden, and of new CIS member states, Armenia, Belarus, and Georgia, joined the representatives of the four initial parties (European Union, Japan, Russia, and United States). The projects approved at the meeting brought the total number to 94, representing a total funding commitment of $48.5 million. These projects sponsored more than 5,000 scientists and engineers, the majority of whom were involved in weapons activities for periods of up to three years.
In 1997, the board visited the All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Inorganic Materials to see the worksites of seven ISTC projects at the institute, two of which had recently been completed. The ISTC is funding projects there on such problems as radioactive waste management and new fuels for power nuclear reactors, including developing MOX fuel using plutonium from defense and civil sectors. From 30 June to 1 July 1997, the governing board met in Moscow. During the meeting, the board approved the documents and procedures necessary to allow inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations (including the private sector) to fund and support projects. Newly approved projects included a training center for nuclear waste management; transportation and storage containers for dangerous materials; a quartz calorimeter modular detector for CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research); a gyroscope for civilian aircraft navigation; biological means for electric energy generation by photosynthesis; materials science, including high temperature super-conducting polymer-ceramics and ultra-light weight aerogels for commercial application; and environmental applications, including electrokinetic methods for contaminated soil remediation and atmospheric photochemistry by aerosol monitoring.
On 5-6 November 1997, the governing board held its 14th meeting in Moscow. The board welcomed the Republic of Korea as the newest funding party, which will contribute one full-time scientific expert to the ISTC secretariat. Georgia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic also pledged to contribute their facilities and technical expertise.
In 1998, the governing board held three meetings. At its 15th meeting held in Moscow, the governing board approved 45 new projects, including safe, long-term storage of radioactive waste; improvement of safety and operations of nuclear reactors; and environmental modeling, monitoring, and protection. During the 16th meeting the board noted with satisfaction the official accession of the Republic of Korea in May 1998 and the opening of the ISTC branch office in Armenia in June 1998.
The governing board held its 17th meeting in the Republic of Armenia on November 1998. The board noted with satisfaction the operation of the ISTC Armenia branch office, located at the Presidium. During the meeting, the board discussed the ISTC Activity Plan and Budget for 1999, which it had approved. The plan provides broad support to nonproliferation programs in 1999; means by which the ISTC can act to support other nonproliferation initiatives; and substantial progress on revising the "Instructions for Proposal Preparation," the document that is central to the ISTC review and funding of science project proposals.
On 2 March 1999, the governing board held its 18th meeting at the ISTC secretariat headquarters in Moscow. The governing board encouraged the parties and secretariat to explore additional ways in which the ISTC can support international efforts consistent with its objectives. The board approved two new ISTC initiatives: 1) to address the Y2K problem, and 2) to better organize ISTC contributions to public health.
From 30 June to 1 July 1999, the governing board held its 19th meeting at the ISTC secretariat headquarters in Moscow. The board approved two milestone documents at its meeting: the Model Project Agreement (the basic contractual document for ISTC financial support to hundreds of scientific project teams throughout CIS Party territories) and the Intellectual Property Rights Guidelines for ISTC partners.
At its 20th meeting on 27 October 1999, the governing board approved funding for 33 new projects including radioactive waste handling and disposal; pollution monitoring; nuclear materials control and accounting; and medical diagnostics for cancer, ulcers, and infectious diseases. Some projects had direct application to verification of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and of the destruction of WMD.
Point of Contact:
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This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents. Copyright © 2013 National Journal Group, Inc., 600 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20037.
The ISTC is an intergovernmental organization that serves as a clearinghouse for projects that engage weapons scientists, technicians, and engineers from the CIS in civilian science and technology activities.
the Nuclear Threat
Reducing the risk of nuclear use by terrorists and nation-states requires a broad set of complementary strategies targeted at reducing state reliance on nuclear weapons, stemming the demand for nuclear weapons and denying organizations or states access to the essential nuclear materials, technologies and know-how.