|Last Updated:||March 1, 2011|
|Subordinate To:||Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK)|
Turkish Reactor 2 is an upgraded version of the TR-1, Turkey's first nuclear research reactor. The TR-1 was a 1MWt pool-type research reactor that operated from 1962 until 1977. With assistance from the Belgian firm Belgonucléaire, Turkey upgraded the TR-1 to a 5MWt reactor from 1980 to 1981. The TR-2 went critical in December 1981. The main purpose of the TR-2 is the production of isotopes including Tc-99m, I-131, and Ir-192 for medical and industrial uses. 
Originally, the TR-2 used fuel enriched to 93% U-235, which was supplied by the French company CERCA.  However, under the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the TR-2 was subsequently converted to operate on LEU. The reactor's conversion was a gradual process that began in the 1990's. For many years, the reactor operated with a mixed-core of both LEU and HEU.  In January 2010, the NNSA removed 5.4 kg of HEU spent fuel from ÇNAEM to the United States. The transfer marked the complete removal of all U.S. origin HEU from Turkey. 
 "Turkey: Power-Balance Concerns," Nuclear Programmes in the Middle East: In the Shadow of Iran, ed. Mark Fitzpatrick (London: The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2008), p. 63.
 Mehmet Ali Şeflek, "U.S.-Turkey Uranium Transfer from Çekmece Goes Unnoticed," Today's Zaman, 14 April 2010, www.todayszaman.com; "NNSA Announces Highly Enriched Uranium Removed from Turkey," National Nuclear Security Administration, 12 January 2010, www.nnsa.energy.gov.