Fact Sheet

Australia Overview

Australia Overview

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Background

This page is part of the Australia’s Country Profile.

Australia is a party to all of the major nonproliferation treaties and international export control regimes. Although Australia no longer maintains offensive weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs, it has sought or deployed some of these capabilities in the past. Australia developed a chemical warfare capability during World War II, and collaborated with the United Kingdom on nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s.

Nuclear

Australia has never produced nuclear weapons, and is a party to all relevant nuclear nonproliferation treaties and international export control regimes. Australia ratified the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1973 and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1998. An active proponent of CTBT negotiations from the 1970s forward, Australia played an important role in finalizing the treaty in 1996. 1 The same year, the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons delivered the results of its year-long deliberation to the United Nations. 2 Australia is also a party to the Treaty of Rarotonga, which established a nuclear weapon-free zone in the South Pacific.

From the early 1950s through the early 1970s, elements within the Australian government considered nuclear weapons. By the early 1960s, these efforts resulted in discussions between Australia and the United Kingdom which explored the possibility that Australia might directly purchase ready-made weapons. Ultimately the proposal was rejected by the Cabinet, and it is unclear how serious either of the parties was about the discussions. 3 In the late 1960s, Prime Minister John Gorton pressed for developing a domestic nuclear weapons option. 4 Once again, this effort lacked widespread support in the bureaucracy or the political leadership and failed to result in any substantive developments. These efforts ended in January 1973 with Australia’s ratification of the NPT. 5

From 1952 to 1963 Australian territory was an early test-site for British nuclear weapons, resulting in radioactive contamination, injuries to military personnel, and the exposure of native populations to fallout. 6 It is possible that Australian involvement was predicated on the expectation that the United Kingdom would make low-yield tactical nuclear weapons available to Australia.

Australia has the largest deposits of uranium in the world; the country’s known resources account for 31% of the world total. It is estimated that Australia produced 5,897 metric tons of U3O8 (yellowcake) in 2014. Australia exports all of its uranium and is the third largest producer behind Kazakhstan and Canada. 7 Uranium exports to nuclear weapon states, including China, France, and India, have been a controversial issue in Australia. 8 In July 2012, Australia signed a nuclear cooperation and technical transfer agreement with the United Arab Emirates setting the stage for future uranium sales. 9 The agreement entered into force on 14 April 2014 and will last 15 years. 10 Australia will provide uranium fuel for its nuclear plants starting in 2017 for a total cost of AUS$ 20 billion. 11 In September 2014, Australia and India signed a nuclear cooperation agreement allowing Australia to export uranium to India for the country’s nuclear power industry, making India the first non-NPT signatory state to purchase Australian uranium. 12 According to Australia’s Toro Energy Company, exports could begin within the next five years. Since 1958, Australia has built and operated three separate nuclear research reactors, only one of which is currently in service. 13 In February 2015, South Australia set up a royal commission to explore bringing nuclear power to the area, with a report due by May 2016. If the report supports the development of nuclear power in South Australia, federal laws would have to change to allow further progress on the project. 14 Relevant Australian facilities and exports are under IAEA safeguards.

Australia plays an active role in nuclear safety and nonproliferation efforts. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), works with countries in Southeast Asia via ANSTO’s Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project to improve the management of security risks associated with radioactive sources. 15 In 2009, Australia signed a memorandum of understanding on nuclear safeguards and security cooperation with Indonesia, South Korea, and Vietnam. 16 Australia has since been working with these countries to develop specific programs and activities. The Australian government also collaborated with Japan to establish the International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, which concluded its mandate in July 2010. The Commission aimed to enhance and revitalize international efforts on nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament. 17

Biological

There is no evidence that Australia has ever possessed, or sought to possess a biological warfare (BW) capability. Australia signed the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) on 10 April 1972, and deposited a certificate of ratification on 5 October 1977. 18

Australia conducts extensive defensive research on biological materials and biosafety. The country has four BSL4 (biosafety level 4) maximum containment units: the Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), the National High Security Quarantine Laboratory (NHSQL), the Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services Virology Laboratory (QHFSS), and the Emerging Infections and Biohazard Response Unit (EIBRU). EIBRU is responsible for investigating possible instances of biological warfare, including “human specimens or substances suspected of containing an exotic agent, emerging infectious disease, or bioterrorism agent.” 19

Through the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), the Australian Department of Defence operates the Biological Defence Research, Land Division. The goals of the division are to provide a “defensive capability for the Australian Defence Force (ADF) by enhancing the ability of the ADF to operate in parts of the world where biological weapons might be used.” It also “enhances Australia’s ability to contribute to biological arms control verification.” 20

Additionally, Australia has sought to promote biosecurity through cooperation with the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). For example, in September 2010, Australia co-hosted a Bio-Risk Workshop with the United States and the Philippines. 21

Missile

Australia possesses no long-range cruise or ballistic missiles, however does deploy AGM-158 air to surface cruise missiles on its F/A-18A/B aircraft. 22 Historically, it provided facilities for British developmental testing of the Blue Streak ballistic missile in the late 1950s, but these activities did not lead to the development of any domestic missile capabilities. Australia became a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in 1990. 23 Australia hosted an MTCR plenary in 2008 and chaired the MTCR from 2008 to 2009. Australia was also one of the original subscribing states to the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), which is a non-legally binding effort to bolster the work of the MTCR in curbing the proliferation of ballistic missiles. 24 Additionally, Australia is a participating state to the Wassenaar Arrangement. 25

Chemical

While Australia historically had a chemical warfare program, it discontinued these activities and is an active member of chemical weapon nonproliferation and export control efforts. Australia ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in May 1994, and has been a member of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) since its inception in 1997. 26 Australia had previously been a party to the Geneva Protocol, which it ratified in January 1930. 27 Australia was a driving force behind the creation of the Australia Group (AG) in 1985. The Australia Group is an informal arrangement of 15 supplier countries whose goal is to enhance cooperation on controlling the spread of CW-related materials, and to help members harmonize their national export control and licensing measures. The AG was established in response to the use of chemical weapons in the Iran-Iraq War. 28

In the late 1930s the Australian government began to investigate offensive and defense CW capabilities. 29 In 1942, following the defeat of Australian, British, Dutch and U.S. forces in Southeast Asia by Japan, the Australian government urgently requested that the U.K. supply it with chemical weapons. 30 Initial shipments of mustard and phosgene began to reach Australia in May 1942, allowing a substantial arsenal of air-dropped and artillery munitions to be assembled by the middle of 1943. Beginning in May 1942, the U.S. government shipped significant quantities of chemical weapons to Australia for deployment with U.S. military forces based in Australia to defend against a potential Japanese invasion. 31

Beginning in 1943 and through the end of 1945, Australia, in conjunction with the United Kingdom and to a lesser degree the United States, undertook a program of live agent testing and human trials of mustard gas. The purpose of these tests was to obtain a better understanding of the performance of these agents in tropical conditions as applied to both offensive and defensive chemical warfare. 32

Following the end of World War II, the Australia and U.S. governments dumped significant quantities of CW agents, in both bulk and weaponized forms, off the Australian coast. The majority of the agent was dumped between 1945 and 1948, with further operations in 1965 and 1970. The total weight of materials including munitions was 21,000 metric tons; the actual agent weight was significantly less. 33 Small quantities of old chemical weapons continue to be discovered from time to time at former military bases and testing sites. 34 In June 2011, Australia successfully destroyed a cache of more than 140 U.S.-origin World War II shells that contained a mustard chemical warfare agent, which were discovered in Columboola in 2009. 35

In recent years, Australia has focused extensively on regional and international cooperation on chemical safety as a component of counter-terrorism. In 2013 the Australian Attorney General established a chemical security coordination unit responsible for developing a risk management framework to examine supply chain vulnerabilities of high-risk chemicals, and to raise public awareness on related issues. 36

Australia also hosted a subregional National Capacity Evaluation and Training Workshop for State Parties from the Pacific Islands in May 2014 for parties needing technical assistance implementing the provisions of the CWC. 37

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Glossary

Nonproliferation
Nonproliferation: Measures to prevent the spread of biological, chemical, and/or nuclear weapons and their delivery systems. See entry for Proliferation.
Export control
National laws or international arrangements established to restrict the sale of certain goods to certain countries, or to ensure that safeguards or end-use guarantees are applied to the export and sale of sensitive and dual-use technologies and materials. See entry for Dual-use
WMD (weapons of mass destruction)
WMD: Typically refers to nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons, though there is some debate as to whether chemical weapons qualify as weapons of “mass destruction.”
Deployment
The positioning of military forces – conventional and/or nuclear – in conjunction with military planning.
Chemical Weapon (CW)
The CW: The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons defines a chemical weapon as any of the following: 1) a toxic chemical or its precursors; 2) a munition specifically designed to deliver a toxic chemical; or 3) any equipment specifically designed for use with toxic chemicals or munitions. Toxic chemical agents are gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical substances that use their toxic properties to cause death or severe harm to humans, animals, and/or plants. Chemical weapons include blister, nerve, choking, and blood agents, as well as non-lethal incapacitating agents and riot-control agents. Historically, chemical weapons have been the most widely used and widely proliferated weapon of mass destruction.
Nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon: A device that releases nuclear energy in an explosive manner as the result of nuclear chain reactions involving fission, or fission and fusion, of atomic nuclei. Such weapons are also sometimes referred to as atomic bombs (a fission-based weapon); or boosted fission weapons (a fission-based weapon deriving a slightly higher yield from a small fusion reaction); or hydrogen bombs/thermonuclear weapons (a weapon deriving a significant portion of its energy from fusion reactions).
Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)
Signed in 1968, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the most widely adhered-to international security agreement. The “three pillars” of the NPT are nuclear disarmament, nonproliferation, and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Article VI of the NPT commits states possessing nuclear weapons to negotiate in good faith toward halting the arms race and the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. The Treaty stipulates that non-nuclear-weapon states will not seek to acquire nuclear weapons, and will accept International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on their nuclear activities, while nuclear weapon states commit not to transfer nuclear weapons to other states. All states have a right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and should assist one another in its development. The NPT provides for conferences of member states to review treaty implementation at five-year intervals. Initially of a 25-year duration, the NPT was extended indefinitely in 1995. For additional information, see the NPT.
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)
The CTBT: Opened for signature in 1996 at the UN General Assembly, the CTBT prohibits all nuclear testing if it enters into force. The treaty establishes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to ensure the implementation of its provisions and verify compliance through a global monitoring system upon entry into force. Pending the treaty’s entry into force, the Preparatory Commission of the CTBTO is charged with establishing the International Monitoring System (IMS) and promoting treaty ratifications. CTBT entry into force is contingent on ratification by 44 Annex II states. For additional information, see the CTBT.
Treaty of Rarotonga
Treaty of Rarotonga: The Treaty on the South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (SPNWFZ) prohibits the testing, manufacturing, acquiring, and stationing of nuclear explosive devices on any member's territory. The treaty also prohibits the dumping of radioactive wastes into the sea. In addition, the treaty required all parties to apply International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to all their peaceful nuclear activities. For additional information, see the SPNWFZ.
Radioactivity
Radioactivity: The spontaneous emission of radiation, generally alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma rays, from the nucleus of an unstable isotope.
Fallout
The process of the descent to the earth's surface of particles contaminated with radioactive material from a radioactive cloud. The term is also applied in a collective sense to the contaminated particulate matter itself. The early (or local) fallout is defined, somewhat arbitrarily, as those particles which reach the earth within 24 hours after a nuclear explosion. The delayed (or worldwide) fallout consists of the smaller particles which ascend into the upper troposphere and stratosphere, to be carried by winds to all parts of the earth. The delayed fallout is brought to earth, mainly by rain and snow, over extended periods ranging from months to years, and can contaminate the animal food-chain.
Tactical nuclear weapons
Short-range nuclear weapons, such as artillery shells, bombs, and short-range missiles, deployed for use in battlefield operations.
Uranium
Uranium is a metal with the atomic number 92. See entries for enriched uranium, low enriched uranium, and highly enriched uranium.
Entry into force
The moment at which all provisions of a treaty are legally binding on its parties. Every treaty specifies preconditions for its entry into force. For example, the NPT specified that it would enter into force after the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the Depository governments) and 40 other countries ratified the treaty, an event that occurred on March 5, 1970. See entries for Signature, Ratification.
Research reactor
Research reactor: Small fission reactors designed to produce neutrons for a variety of purposes, including scientific research, training, and medical isotope production. Unlike commercial power reactors, they are not designed to generate power.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
IAEA: Founded in 1957 and based in Vienna, Austria, the IAEA is an autonomous international organization in the United Nations system. The Agency’s mandate is the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, technical assistance in this area, and verification that nuclear materials and technology stay in peaceful use. Article III of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) requires non-nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accept safeguards administered by the IAEA. The IAEA consists of three principal organs: the General Conference (of member states); the Board of Governors; and the Secretariat. For additional information, see the IAEA.
Safeguards
Safeguards: A system of accounting, containment, surveillance, and inspections aimed at verifying that states are in compliance with their treaty obligations concerning the supply, manufacture, and use of civil nuclear materials. The term frequently refers to the safeguards systems maintained by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in all nuclear facilities in non-nuclear weapon state parties to the NPT. IAEA safeguards aim to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear material in a timely manner. However, the term can also refer to, for example, a bilateral agreement between a supplier state and an importer state on the use of a certain nuclear technology.

See entries for Full-scope safeguards, information-driven safeguards, Information Circular 66, and Information Circular 153.
Radiation source
Usually a sealed source of radiation used in teletherapy and industrial radiography, as a power source for batteries, or in various types of industrial gauges. Machines, such as accelerators, radioisotope generators, and natural radionuclides may be considered sources. Some sources are also used for research and experimentation.
Safeguards
Safeguards: A system of accounting, containment, surveillance, and inspections aimed at verifying that states are in compliance with their treaty obligations concerning the supply, manufacture, and use of civil nuclear materials. The term frequently refers to the safeguards systems maintained by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in all nuclear facilities in non-nuclear weapon state parties to the NPT. IAEA safeguards aim to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear material in a timely manner. However, the term can also refer to, for example, a bilateral agreement between a supplier state and an importer state on the use of a certain nuclear technology.

See entries for Full-scope safeguards, information-driven safeguards, Information Circular 66, and Information Circular 153.
Biological weapon (BW)
Biological weapons use microorganisms and natural toxins to produce disease in humans, animals, or plants.  Biological weapons can be derived from: bacteria (anthrax, plague, tularemia); viruses (smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers); rickettsia (Q fever and epidemic typhus); biological toxins (botulinum toxin, staphylococcus enterotoxin B); and fungi (San Joaquin Valley fever, mycotoxins). These agents can be deployed as biological weapons when paired with a delivery system, such as a missile or aerosol device.
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)
The BTWC: The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BTWC) prohibits the development, production, or stockpiling of bacteriological and toxin weapons. Countries must destroy or divert to peaceful purposes all agents, toxins, weapons, equipment, and means of delivery within nine months after the entry into force of the convention. The BTWC was opened for signature on April 10, 1972, and entered into force on March 26, 1975. In 1994, the BTWC member states created the Ad Hoc Group to negotiate a legally binding BTWC Protocol that would help deter violations of the BTWC. The draft protocol outlines a monitoring regime that would require declarations of dual-use activities and facilities, routine visits to declared facilities, and short-notice challenge investigations. For additional information, see the BTWC.
Ratification
Ratification: The implementation of the formal process established by a country to legally bind its government to a treaty, such as approval by a parliament. In the United States, treaty ratification requires approval by the president after he or she has received the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate. Following ratification, a country submits the requisite legal instrument to the treaty’s depository governments Procedures to ratify a treaty follow its signature.

See entries for Entry into force and Signature.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization established on August 8, 1967, whose objectives include the acceleration of economic growth and the promotion of regional peace and stability in Southeast Asia. It was established by five original member countries, but now consists of ten members and two observers. Among other achievements, ASEAN was responsible for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Southeast Asia, created by the Treaty of Bangkok at the Fifth ASEAN Summit in 1995. For additional information, see ASEAN.
Cruise missile
An unmanned self-propelled guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift for most of its flight path. There are subsonic and supersonic cruise missiles currently deployed in conventional and nuclear arsenals, while conventional hypersonic cruise missiles are currently in development. These can be launched from the air, submarines, or the ground. Although they carry smaller payloads, travel at slower speeds, and cover lesser ranges than ballistic missiles, cruise missiles can be programmed to travel along customized flight paths and to evade missile defense systems.
Ballistic missile
A delivery vehicle powered by a liquid or solid fueled rocket that primarily travels in a ballistic (free-fall) trajectory.  The flight of a ballistic missile includes three phases: 1) boost phase, where the rocket generates thrust to launch the missile into flight; 2) midcourse phase, where the missile coasts in an arc under the influence of gravity; and 3) terminal phase, in which the missile descends towards its target.  Ballistic missiles can be characterized by three key parameters - range, payload, and Circular Error Probable (CEP), or targeting precision.  Ballistic missiles are primarily intended for use against ground targets.
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
The MTCR: An informal arrangement established in April 1987 by an association of supplier states concerned about the proliferation of missile equipment and technology relevant to missiles that are capable of carrying a payload over 500 kilograms over a 300-kilometer range. Though originally intended to restrict the proliferation of nuclear-capable missiles, the regime has been expanded to restrict the spread of unmanned aerial vehicles. For additional information, see the MTCR.
HCOC
The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), formerly known as The International Code of Conduct (ICOC), was adopted in 2002. The HCOC was established to bolster efforts to curb ballistic missile proliferation worldwide and to further delegitimize such proliferation by fostering consensus among states on how they should conduct their trade in missiles and dual-use items.
Wassenaar Arrangement (WA)
Representatives of 33 states met in Vienna, Austria in July 1996, and established this arrangement intended to contribute to regional and international security by promoting transparency and greater responsibility with regard to transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies. This organization was the successor to the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM). See entry for COCOM. For additional information, see the Wassenaar Arrangement.
Chemical Weapon (CW)
The CW: The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons defines a chemical weapon as any of the following: 1) a toxic chemical or its precursors; 2) a munition specifically designed to deliver a toxic chemical; or 3) any equipment specifically designed for use with toxic chemicals or munitions. Toxic chemical agents are gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical substances that use their toxic properties to cause death or severe harm to humans, animals, and/or plants. Chemical weapons include blister, nerve, choking, and blood agents, as well as non-lethal incapacitating agents and riot-control agents. Historically, chemical weapons have been the most widely used and widely proliferated weapon of mass destruction.
Export control
National laws or international arrangements established to restrict the sale of certain goods to certain countries, or to ensure that safeguards or end-use guarantees are applied to the export and sale of sensitive and dual-use technologies and materials. See entry for Dual-use
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires each state party to declare and destroy all the chemical weapons (CW) and CW production facilities it possesses, or that are located in any place under its jurisdiction or control, as well as any CW it abandoned on the territory of another state. The CWC was opened for signature on 13 January 1993, and entered into force on 29 April 1997. For additional information, see the CWC.
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
The OPCW: Based in The Hague, the Netherlands, the OPCW is responsible for implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). All countries ratifying the CWC become state parties to the CWC, and make up the membership of the OPCW. The OPCW meets annually, and in special sessions when necessary. For additional information, see the OPCW.
Geneva Protocol
Geneva Protocol: Formally known as the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, this protocol prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases, and bans bacteriological warfare. It was opened for signature on 17 June 1925. For additional information, see the Geneva Protocol.
Australia Group (AG)
Australia Group (AG): Established in 1985 to limit the spread of chemical and biological weapons (CBW) through export controls on chemical precursors, equipment, agents, and organisms. For additional information, see the Australia Group.
Mustard (HD)
Mustard is a blister agent, or vesicant. The term mustard gas typically refers to sulfur mustard (HD), despite HD being neither a mustard nor a gas. Sulfur mustard gained notoriety during World War I for causing more casualties than all of the other chemical agents combined. Victims develop painful blisters on their skin, as well as lung and eye irritation leading to potential pulmonary edema and blindness. However, mustard exposure is usually not fatal. A liquid at room temperature, sulfur mustard has been delivered using artillery shells and aerial bombs. HD is closely related to the nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2, HN—3).
Phosgene (CG)
Phosgene (CG): A choking agent, phosgene gas causes damage to the respiratory system leading to fluid build-up in the lungs. Phosgene also causes coughing, throat and eye irritation, tearing, and blurred vision. A gas at room temperature, phosgene can be delivered as a pressurized liquid that quickly converts to gas. Germany and France used phosgene during World War I; the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia also produced military phosgene. Phosgene caused over 80% of the deaths from chemical gas during World War I.

Sources

  1. "The 'End Game' Cont.," Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization, www.ctbto.org.
  2. "Report of the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons," Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, www.dfat.gov.au.
  3. Jacques Hymans, "Isotopes and Identity, Australia and the Nuclear Weapons Option, 1949-1999," The Nonproliferation Review, Spring 2000 (7:1), p. 5.
  4. Jacques Hymans, "Isotopes and Identity, Australia and the Nuclear Weapons Option, 1949-1999," The Nonproliferation Review, Spring 2000 (7:1), p. 5.
  5. Jim Walsh, "Surprise Down Under: The Secret History of Australia's Nuclear Ambitions," The Nonproliferation Review, Fall 1997 (5:1), pp. 1-20; Jacques Hymans, "Isotopes and Identity, Australia and the Nuclear Weapons Option, 1949-1999," The Nonproliferation Review, Spring 2000 (7:1), pp. 1-23.
  6. "War Crimes, Weapons Trials, Naval Disasters: Atomic Weapons Trials," National Archives of Australia, www.naa.gov.au.
  7. "Australia's Uranium," World Nuclear Association, June 2015, www.world-nuclear.org.
  8. For an outline of the "NUKEM Scandal" of 1988 surrounding exports to France, and a more general outline of ongoing concerns regarding uranium exports to China see: Marko Beljac, et. al., An Illusion of Protection: The Unavoidable Limitations of Safeguards on Nuclear Materials, (2006) p. 34, www.icanw.org.
  9. "Australia, UAE Agreement Paves Way for Uranium Sales," Reuters, 31 July 2012, www.reuters.com; “Nuclear Power in the United Arab Emirates,” World Nuclear Association, January 2014, www.world-nuclear.org.
  10. "Agreement Between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United Arab Emirates on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy," Australian Treaty Series [2014] ATS 10, The Government of Australia, 14 April 2014, www.austlii.edu.au.
  11. “Business Between the UAE and Australia,” Bluestone, 9 September 2013, bluestoneme.com.
  12. “Australia ends ban on selling uranium to India,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 5 September 2014, www.abc.net.au.
  13. For information on Australia's active research reactor (OPAL), see: "ANSTO's Research Reactor," Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), www.ansto.gov.au. To learn about the two earlier and now decommissioned research reactors, see: "Research Reactors," ANSTO, www.ansto.gov.au.
  14. "Australia's Uranium," World Nuclear Association, June 2015, www.world-nuclear.org.
  15. "Australia's Implementation of UNGA Resolution 64/38: Measures to Prevent Terrorists from Acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction," www.un.org/disarmament.
  16. "Australia's Implementation of UNGA Resolution 64/38: Measures to Prevent Terrorists from Acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction," www.un.org/disarmament.
  17. International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, www.icnnd.org.
  18. "Status of the Convention Showing Dates of Signature, Ratification and Accession," Organization for the Prohibition of Biological Weapons (OPBW), www.opbw.org.
  19. "Revised Forms for the Submission of the Confidence-Building Measures," Report submitted to the United Nations Office at Geneva, United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs, 1 April 2015, www.unog.ch.
  20. "Revised Forms for the Submission of the Confidence-Building Measures," Report submitted to the United Nations Office at Geneva, United Nations Office of Disarmament Affairs, 1 April 2015, www.unog.ch.
  21. "Australia's Implementation of UNGA Resolution 64/38: Measures to Prevent Terrorists from Acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction," www.un.org/disarmament.
  22. "AGM-158A/B (JASSM/JASSM-ER)," Missile Threat, http://missilethreat.com.
  23. "MTCR Partners," Missile Technology Control Regime, www.mtcr.info.
  24. "Non Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament: Missiles," Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, www.dfat.gov.au.
  25. "Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies," Wassenaar Arrangement, www.wassenaar.org.
  26. "OPCW Member States," Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), www.opcw.org.
  27. "States Parties to the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, Done at Geneva 17 June 1925," 17 June 1925, http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu.
  28. Australia Group, www.australiagroup.net.
  29. Geoff Plunkett, Chemical Warfare in Australia, (Loftus: Australian Military History Publications, 2007), pp. 8-13. Although this book can be difficult to find, Mr. Plunkett maintains a website presenting information from the book at: www.mustardgas.org.
  30. Geoff Plunkett, Chemical Warfare in Australia, (Loftus: Australian military History Publications, 2007), p. 7.
  31. Geoff Plunkett, Chemical Warfare in Australia, (Loftus: Australian military History Publications, 2007), pp. 30-37.
  32. Bridget Goodwin, Keen as Mustard: Britain's horrific chemical warfare experiments in Australia (St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1998).
  33. Geoff Plunkett, Chemical Warfare Agent Sea Dumping off Australia (Revised and Updated edition), (Canberra: Defence Publishing Service, 2003), p. 4, www.hydro.gov.au.
  34. Stuart Cumming, "Shell find raises memories," The Chronicle (Toowoomba), 14 November 2009, www.thechronicle.com.au.
  35. Hon. David Feeny, Australian Department of Defense, “Defense Destroys WWII Weapons in QLD,” 1 June 2011, www.minister.defence.gov.au.
  36. "Australia's implementation of UNGA Resolution 64/38: Measures to Prevent Terrorists from Acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction," www.un.org/disarmament.
  37. "Draft Report of the OPCW on the Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and their Destruction in 2014," Report by the Executive Council, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, 9 July 2015, www.opcw.org.

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