Fact Sheet

Canada Overview

Canada Overview

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Canada does not have nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons or relevant delivery systems, and is a member in good standing of all relevant nonproliferation treaties and regimes.

A significant producer and exporter of dual-use goods, particularly relating to civil nuclear applications, Canada also plays an active role in nonproliferation export control regimes.

Nuclear

Canada is a non-nuclear weapon state party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and has never had a nuclear weapons program. During the Cold War, as a member of both the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Canada hosted U.S. nuclear weapons on its soil and at its military bases in West Germany. These weapons were paired with four different delivery systems, two for NORAD and two for NATO. Between 1964 and 1971, NORAD deployed approximately 60 BOMARC surface-to-air guided missiles in Canada with 10 kiloton W40 warheads. [1] The second nuclear delivery system deployed in Canada was the Genie air-to-air missile. The Canadian CF-101 Voodoo interceptor aircraft could carry these missiles along with their 1.5 kiloton W25 warheads. [2]

Canada participated in NATO's nuclear mission in Europe between 1963 and 1984. The Canadian CF-104 Starfighter was designed to carry U.S. tactical B57 and B61 gravity bombs. Additionally, the Canadian army was trained to use the short-range surface-to-surface Honest John missile, which carried a W31 warhead. [3] The terms of a 1963 agreement between Canada and the United States stipulated that all U.S. nuclear weapons remain in the custody of qualified U.S. personnel. In order to access nuclear weapons, Canadian units had to pass the Initial Capability Inspection (ICI) given by the U.S. Air Force Inspector General. To keep nuclear weapons, Canadian units had to pass an Operational Readiness Inspection (ORI). [4] Canada ended involvement with U.S. nuclear weapons in 1984. [5]

Canada has ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), is a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), and is an active member in several ad hoc nonproliferation efforts, including the G-8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction and the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI).

Peaceful Uses

Canada has been actively involved in the peaceful applications of nuclear technology since the government established Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in 1952. [6] AECL built the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River in 1957. This reactor provided much of the world's supply of molybdenum-99 for medical diagnosis and cancer treatment. [7] In March 2018, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories retired the NRU. [8] To address the resulting shortage of molybdenum-99, Canada plans to begin irradiating medical isotopes at the Darlington nuclear power plant in Ontario in 2019. [9] 

The AECL began developing the CANDU (Canadian-Deuterium-Uranium) power reactor in the late 1950s, and the first commercial CANDU reactors began operating in Ontario in 1971. All 18 of Canada’s commercial nuclear power reactors are CANDU reactors, and together they generate about 15% of Canada’s electricity. [10] Canada has exported CANDUs to 6 countries: Argentina (1); China (2); India (2); Pakistan (1); Romania (2); and South Korea (4). [11] Additionally, India has built 16 derivatives of the CANDU model.

Canada possesses 8% of the world's uranium resources, but produces roughly 22% of the uranium sold on the global market. [12] Most of this uranium comes from the McArthur River Mine in Saskatchewan, the most productive uranium mine in the world. However, in November 2017, the majority owner and operator of both the McArthur River Mine and Key Lake Mill announced a suspension in activities at these locations due to low global prices. Uranium extraction at other sites began increasing in 2014 with the opening of the Cigar Lake Mine, which produced almost half of Canada’s uranium in 2016. Given 582,500 metric tons of known uranium resources, Canada will continue to play a significant role in meeting world demand. [13] 

Canadian industry is also active in the refining and conversion processes. Cameco Corporation's refinery at Blind River is the world's largest commercial refinery, and refines both domestic and foreign U3O8 into UO3. [14] Cameco’s conversion facility at Port Hope represents a significant portion of the western world's uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion capacity, and is the only commercial supplier of fuel-grade natural UO2, used to fabricate fuel bundles for CANDUs around the world. [15] 85% of Canada’s uranium production is exported. [16] 

Biological

During World War II, Canada conducted research on biological warfare, studying the offensive and defensive applications of anthrax, rinderpest, and probably tularemia at Grosse Ile Island. [17] Some biological weapons testing may have occurred alongside chemical weapons testing at Canadian Forces Base Suffield in Alberta. [18]

Canada ratified the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) on 18 September 1972. The Department of National Defence funds the Canadian Safety and Security Program to research and develop defenses against current and projected non-traditional weapons systems, including biological weapons. [19] Canada possesses a well-developed biopharmaceutical industry, and therefore continually works to mitigate dual-use risks through robust export controls and participation in the Australia Group. [20]

Chemical

While Canada does not currently possess chemical weapons, it participated in allied chemical weapons research during World War II. In 1940 when the United Kingdom sought an open-air proving ground within the Commonwealth, the Canadian government displaced 100 families and set aside 1000 square miles for testing at Suffield, Alberta. [21] The United Kingdom, Canada and the United States formalized their CW collaboration in 1946, and began holding annual research conferences on offensive and defensive chemical warfare. [22] In 1947, the three governments signed the Tripartite Agreement providing each country with access to join research and mandating a rational division of labor. [23] During World War II, Canada partnered with the U.S. to test mustard gas munitions on San José Island, Panama. In 2017, the remaining eight chemical munitions from that operation were destroyed under the supervision of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). [24] 

As a member of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) Canada donated $18.7 million CAD ($14.3 million USD) to the OPCW for chemical weapons disposal efforts in Syria between 2012 and 2015. [25] In January 2018, Canada joined the International Partnership against Impunity for the Use of Chemical Weapons, a French initiative to encourage international political commitments against the use of CW. [26] Canada is also a member of the Australia Group (AG). 

Missile

Canada does not have a missile development program, and has shown no interest in pursuing an indigenous missile capability. Canada's limited missile arsenal for delivering conventional weapons is imported from the United States. These missiles include RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship cruise missiles deployed on Iroquois class destroyers; SM-2 Block III (RIM-66) missiles; and RIM-162 Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missiles (SAM) deployed on the Halifax-class Frigate. [27] In October 2014 the Canadian government reportedly approved an $800 million purchase of next-generation Sea Sparrow missiles. [28] Canada also has medium-range air-to-air AIM-120 missiles, and was approved to purchase the AIM-120D variant by the U.S. State Department in November 2017. The missiles will be used on the Royal Canadian Air Force’s CF-18/CF-188 Boeing Hornets. [29] Canada has indicated some interest in long-range rocket artillery systems such as the HIMARs and Lockheed Martin's MLRS. [30] A member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and the Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), Canada is committed to preventing the spread of missiles and related technologies.

In 2005 Canada announced that it would not participate in the U.S. missile defense plan, citing concerns over the viability of the system and program costs. [31] In 2015, Canada purchased the same radar technology utilized in Israel’s Iron Dome. [32] The medium- range radar system can track short to medium-range missiles, as well as aircraft, cruise missiles and unmanned air vehicles. [33] Canada is also an active member of NORAD, the primary command responsible for missile launch detection, validation, and warning. [34] In August 2004 Canada requested a change to the NORAD agreement to allow it to play a greater role in missile defense warning, so while Canada would not participate in any future missile interceptions, it does actively participate in warning-related efforts. [35]

Sources:
[1] John Clearwater, Canadian Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story of Canada's Cold War Arsenal (Dundurn Press) 1998.
[2] John Clearwater, Canadian Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story of Canada's Cold War Arsenal (Dundurn Press) 1998.
[3] John Clearwater, Canadian Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story of Canada's Cold War Arsenal (Dundurn Press) 1998.
[4] John Clearwater, Canadian Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story of Canada's Cold War Arsenal (Dundurn Press) 1998.
[5] John Clearwater, Canadian Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story of Canada's Cold War Arsenal (Dundurn Press) 1998.
[6] World Nuclear Association, “Nuclear Power in Canada,” 15 March 2018, www.world-nuclear.org.
[7] World Nuclear Association, “Nuclear Power in Canada,” 15 March 2018, www.world-nuclear.org.
[8] Susan Lunn, Sarah Sears, “A Relic of Canada’s Atom Age, the NRU Reactor is Shutting Down for Good,” CBC News, 30 March 2018, www.cbc.ca.
[9] World Nuclear Association, “Darlington to Supply Molybdenum-99,” 21 June 2018, www.world-nuclear.org.
[10] World Nuclear Association, “Nuclear Power in Canada,” January 2013, www.world-nuclear.org.
[11] Canadian Nuclear Association, “CANDU Technology,” www.can.ca.
[12] International Atomic Energy Association, “World Distribution of Uranium Deposits,” 2009 Edition, www-pub.iaea.org; World Nuclear Association, “Uranium in Canada,” February 2015, www.world-nuclear.org; World Nuclear Association, “Supply of Uranium,” October 2014, www.world-nuclear.org.
[13] World Nuclear Association, “Uranium in Canada,” 15 March 2018, www.world-nuclear.org.
[14] World Nuclear Association, “Nuclear Power in Canada,” 15 March 2018, www.world-nuclear.org.
[15] World Nuclear Association, "Nuclear Power in Canada,” 15 March 2018, www.world-nuclear.org.
[16] National Resources Canada, “About Uranium,” www.nrcan.gc.ca.
[17] John Bryden, “Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947” (McClelland and Stewart) 1989.
[18] John Bryden, “Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947” (McClelland and Stewart) 1989.
[19] Defence Research and Development Canada, “Science and Technology for a Secure Canada,” December 2006, www.drdc-rddc.gc.ca.
[20] Industry Canada, “Life Science Industries: Biopharmaceutical Industry Profile,” 2 December 2011, www.ic.gc.ca.
[21] Jonathan Tucker, War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda (Anchor Books) 2006, p. 108.
[22] Jonathan Tucker, War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda (Anchor Books) 2006, p. 108.
[23] Jonathan Tucker, War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda (Anchor Books) 2006, p. 108.
[24] “OPCW Endorses Plan for the Destruction of Chemical Weapons on San José Island, Panama” Panama Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 14 July 2017, www.mire.gov.pa.
[25] “Canada contributes €2.5 million to support OPCW work in Syria,” Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, 17 February 2017, www.opcw.org.
[26] “Chemical Weapons, No Impunity! International Partnership Against Impunity for the Use of Chemical Weapons,” Chemical Weapons No Impunity! www.noimpunitychemicalweapons.org.
[27] “Importer/Exporter TIV Tables,” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, www.sipri.org; “Background – Artillery – Long Range Precision Rocket System,” Canadian American Strategic Review, www.casr.ca; “The Fleet,” Royal Canadian Navy, www.navy.gorces.gc.ca.
[28] Michael Den Tandt, “Tories approve $800M sole-source purchase of next-gen Navy missiles, sources say,” National Post, 11 October 2014.
[29] Gareth Jennings, “Canada cleared to buy latest-variant AMRAAM,” Jane’s 360, 2 November 2017, www.janes.com.
[30] “Background – Artillery – Long Range Precision Rocket System,” Canadian American Strategic Review, www.casr.ca.
[31] Doug Struck, “Canada Rejects Missile Shield Plan,” The Washington Post, 25 February 2005, www.washingtonpost.com.
[32] Ben Makuch, “Canada Just Bought Israel’s Iron Dome Radar Technology,” Vice News, 29 July 2015, www.news.vice.com.
[33] “Rheinmetall to supply Canada’s armed forces with medium range radar and integrated soldier system – potential order volume could total CAD 493 million,” Rheinmetall Defence, 28 July 2015, www.rheinmetall-defence.com.
[34] “About NORAD,” North American Aerospace Defense Command, www.norad.mil.
[35] James Fergusson, “Shall We Dance? The Missile Defence Decision, NORAD Renewal, and the Future of Canada-US Defence Relations,” Canadian Military Journal, www.journal.forces.gc.ca.

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Glossary

Nuclear weapon
Nuclear weapon: A device that releases nuclear energy in an explosive manner as the result of nuclear chain reactions involving fission, or fission and fusion, of atomic nuclei. Such weapons are also sometimes referred to as atomic bombs (a fission-based weapon); or boosted fission weapons (a fission-based weapon deriving a slightly higher yield from a small fusion reaction); or hydrogen bombs/thermonuclear weapons (a weapon deriving a significant portion of its energy from fusion reactions).
Chemical Weapon (CW)
The CW: The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons defines a chemical weapon as any of the following: 1) a toxic chemical or its precursors; 2) a munition specifically designed to deliver a toxic chemical; or 3) any equipment specifically designed for use with toxic chemicals or munitions. Toxic chemical agents are gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical substances that use their toxic properties to cause death or severe harm to humans, animals, and/or plants. Chemical weapons include blister, nerve, choking, and blood agents, as well as non-lethal incapacitating agents and riot-control agents. Historically, chemical weapons have been the most widely used and widely proliferated weapon of mass destruction.
Biological weapon (BW)
Biological weapons use microorganisms and natural toxins to produce disease in humans, animals, or plants.  Biological weapons can be derived from: bacteria (anthrax, plague, tularemia); viruses (smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers); rickettsia (Q fever and epidemic typhus); biological toxins (botulinum toxin, staphylococcus enterotoxin B); and fungi (San Joaquin Valley fever, mycotoxins). These agents can be deployed as biological weapons when paired with a delivery system, such as a missile or aerosol device.
Nonproliferation
Nonproliferation: Measures to prevent the spread of biological, chemical, and/or nuclear weapons and their delivery systems. See entry for Proliferation.
Dual-use item
An item that has both civilian and military applications. For example, many of the precursor chemicals used in the manufacture of chemical weapons have legitimate civilian industrial uses, such as the production of pesticides or ink for ballpoint pens.
Nonproliferation
Nonproliferation: Measures to prevent the spread of biological, chemical, and/or nuclear weapons and their delivery systems. See entry for Proliferation.
Export control
National laws or international arrangements established to restrict the sale of certain goods to certain countries, or to ensure that safeguards or end-use guarantees are applied to the export and sale of sensitive and dual-use technologies and materials. See entry for Dual-use
Non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS)
Non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS): Under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), NNWS are states that had not detonated a nuclear device prior to 1 January 1967, and who agree in joining the NPT to refrain from pursuing nuclear weapons (that is, all state parties to the NPT other than the United States, the Soviet Union/Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China).
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
The NPT: Signed in 1968, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the most widely adhered-to international security agreement. The “three pillars” of the NPT are nuclear disarmament, nonproliferation, and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Article VI of the NPT commits states possessing nuclear weapons to negotiate in good faith toward halting the arms race and the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. The Treaty stipulates that non-nuclear-weapon states will not seek to acquire nuclear weapons, and will accept International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on their nuclear activities, while nuclear weapon states commit not to transfer nuclear weapons to other states. All states have a right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and should assist one another in its development. The NPT provides for conferences of member states to review treaty implementation at five-year intervals. Initially of a 25-year duration, the NPT was extended indefinitely in 1995. For additional information, see the NPT.
North American Aerospace (formerly Air) Defense Command (NORAD)
The North American Aerospace (formerly Air) Defense Command (NORAD), established in 1957, is a bi-national air defense organization between the United States and Canada. Originally aimed at deterring threats from Soviet bombers and ICBMs, NORAD has expanded following the end of the Cold War and the attacks of 9/11, and now provides for aerospace warnings from aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles as well as risks emanating from the interior of North America. NORAD, headquartered at Peterson Air Force Base near Colorado Springs, Colorado, is broken down into three regional commands: the Alaskan NORAD Region (ANR), the Canadian NORAD Region (CANR), and the Continental U.S. NORAD Region (CONR).
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a military alliance that was formed in 1949 to help deter the Soviet Union from attacking Europe. The Alliance is based on the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed in Washington on 4 April 1949. The treaty originally created an alliance of 10 European and two North American independent states, but today NATO has 28 members who have committed to maintaining and developing their defense capabilities, to consulting on issues of mutual security concern, and to the principle of collective self-defense. NATO is also engaged in out-of-area security operations, most notably in Afghanistan, where Alliance forces operate alongside other non-NATO countries as part of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). For additional information, see NATO.
Deployment
The positioning of military forces – conventional and/or nuclear – in conjunction with military planning.
Kiloton
Kiloton: A term used to quantify the energy of a nuclear explosion that is equivalent to the explosion of 1,000 tons of trinitrotoluene (TNT) conventional explosive.
Tactical nuclear weapons
Short-range nuclear weapons, such as artillery shells, bombs, and short-range missiles, deployed for use in battlefield operations.
Ratification
Ratification: The implementation of the formal process established by a country to legally bind its government to a treaty, such as approval by a parliament. In the United States, treaty ratification requires approval by the president after he or she has received the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate. Following ratification, a country submits the requisite legal instrument to the treaty’s depository governments Procedures to ratify a treaty follow its signature.

See entries for Entry into force and Signature.
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)
The CTBT: Opened for signature in 1996 at the UN General Assembly, the CTBT prohibits all nuclear testing if it enters into force. The treaty establishes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to ensure the implementation of its provisions and verify compliance through a global monitoring system upon entry into force. Pending the treaty’s entry into force, the Preparatory Commission of the CTBTO is charged with establishing the International Monitoring System (IMS) and promoting treaty ratifications. CTBT entry into force is contingent on ratification by 44 Annex II states. For additional information, see the CTBT.
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
The NSG was established in 1975, and its members commit themselves to exporting sensitive nuclear technologies only to countries that adhere to strict non-proliferation standards. For additional information, see the NSG.
G-8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction
Launched in 2002 at the G-8 Summit in Kananaskis, the G-8 Global Partnership is a multilateral initiative for financial commitments to implement and coordinate chemical, biological, and nuclear threat reduction activities on a global scale. Originally granted a ten-year lifespan and focused primarily on activities in the former Soviet Union, the Partnership has since been extended beyond 2012; it has also expanded its membership and scope of activities globally. For additional information, see the G-8 entry in the NTI Inventory.
Nonproliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI)
Nonproliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI): Founded by Australia, Canada, Chile, Germany, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates in September 2010, the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Initiative (NPDI) is a ministerial-level group of states within the framework of the Nonproliferation Treaty focused on practical steps that will forward the consensus outcomes of the 2010 NPT Review Conference.
Irradiate
Irradiate: To expose to some form of radiation.
Isotope
Isotope: Any two or more forms of an element having identical or very closely related chemical properties and the same atomic number (the same number of protons in their nuclei), but different atomic weights or mass numbers (a different number of neutrons in their nuclei). Uranium-238 and uranium-235 are isotopes of uranium.
Nuclear power plant
Nuclear power plant: A facility that generates electricity using a nuclear reactor as its heat source to provide steam to a turbine generator.
Nuclear reactor
Nuclear reactor: A vessel in which nuclear fission may be sustained and controlled in a chain nuclear reaction. The varieties are many, but all incorporate certain features, including: fissionable or fissile fuel; a moderating material (unless the reactor is operated on fast neutrons); a reflector to conserve escaping neutrons; provisions of removal of heat; measuring and controlling instruments; and protective devices.
Uranium
Uranium is a metal with the atomic number 92. See entries for enriched uranium, low enriched uranium, and highly enriched uranium.
Anthrax
The common name of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, as well as the name of the disease it produces.  A predominantly animal disease, anthrax can also infect humans and cause death within days.  B. anthracis bacteria can form hardy spores, making them relatively easy to disseminate.  Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the USSR/Russia have all investigated anthrax as a biological weapon, as did the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo.  Anthrax-laced letters were also used to attack the U.S. Senate and numerous news agencies in September 2001.  There is no vaccine available to the general public, and treatment requires aggressive administration of antibiotics.
Tularemia
Tularemia is a disease caused by Francisella tularensis, a bacterium that is native to rabbits and aquatic mammals, but is also one of the most infectious pathogens to humans. Tularemia can survive in harsh conditions, and just one organism can cause human infection. Tularemia aerosols can incapacitate a patient within one or two days. Tularemia infection causes fever and skin lesions, and can eventually develop into pneumonia. The Soviet Union and Japan investigated F. tularensis for bioweapons purposes during World War II, as did the United States during the 1950s and 1960s.
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC)
The BTWC: The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BTWC) prohibits the development, production, or stockpiling of bacteriological and toxin weapons. Countries must destroy or divert to peaceful purposes all agents, toxins, weapons, equipment, and means of delivery within nine months after the entry into force of the convention. The BTWC was opened for signature on April 10, 1972, and entered into force on March 26, 1975. In 1994, the BTWC member states created the Ad Hoc Group to negotiate a legally binding BTWC Protocol that would help deter violations of the BTWC. The draft protocol outlines a monitoring regime that would require declarations of dual-use activities and facilities, routine visits to declared facilities, and short-notice challenge investigations. For additional information, see the BTWC.
Dual-use item
An item that has both civilian and military applications. For example, many of the precursor chemicals used in the manufacture of chemical weapons have legitimate civilian industrial uses, such as the production of pesticides or ink for ballpoint pens.
Export control
National laws or international arrangements established to restrict the sale of certain goods to certain countries, or to ensure that safeguards or end-use guarantees are applied to the export and sale of sensitive and dual-use technologies and materials. See entry for Dual-use
Australia Group (AG)
Australia Group (AG): Established in 1985 to limit the spread of chemical and biological weapons (CBW) through export controls on chemical precursors, equipment, agents, and organisms. For additional information, see the Australia Group.
Mustard (HD)
Mustard is a blister agent, or vesicant. The term mustard gas typically refers to sulfur mustard (HD), despite HD being neither a mustard nor a gas. Sulfur mustard gained notoriety during World War I for causing more casualties than all of the other chemical agents combined. Victims develop painful blisters on their skin, as well as lung and eye irritation leading to potential pulmonary edema and blindness. However, mustard exposure is usually not fatal. A liquid at room temperature, sulfur mustard has been delivered using artillery shells and aerial bombs. HD is closely related to the nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2, HN—3).
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
The OPCW: Based in The Hague, the Netherlands, the OPCW is responsible for implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). All countries ratifying the CWC become state parties to the CWC, and make up the membership of the OPCW. The OPCW meets annually, and in special sessions when necessary. For additional information, see the OPCW.
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires each state party to declare and destroy all the chemical weapons (CW) and CW production facilities it possesses, or that are located in any place under its jurisdiction or control, as well as any CW it abandoned on the territory of another state. The CWC was opened for signature on 13 January 1993, and entered into force on 29 April 1997. For additional information, see the CWC.
Cruise missile
An unmanned self-propelled guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift for most of its flight path. There are subsonic and supersonic cruise missiles currently deployed in conventional and nuclear arsenals, while conventional hypersonic cruise missiles are currently in development. These can be launched from the air, submarines, or the ground. Although they carry smaller payloads, travel at slower speeds, and cover lesser ranges than ballistic missiles, cruise missiles can be programmed to travel along customized flight paths and to evade missile defense systems.
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
The MTCR: An informal arrangement established in April 1987 by an association of supplier states concerned about the proliferation of missile equipment and technology relevant to missiles that are capable of carrying a payload over 500 kilograms over a 300-kilometer range. Though originally intended to restrict the proliferation of nuclear-capable missiles, the regime has been expanded to restrict the spread of unmanned aerial vehicles. For additional information, see the MTCR.
International Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missiles (ICOC)
ICOC: A legally non-binding arrangement that was launched with the objective of preventing and curbing the proliferation of ballistic missile systems capable of delivering weapons of mass destruction. States adhering to the ICOC agree not to assist ballistic missile programs in countries suspected of developing biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, as well as to exhibit "restraint" in the development and testing of their own ballistic missiles. It eventually became the Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missiles (HCOC). For additional information, see the HCOC.
North American Aerospace (formerly Air) Defense Command (NORAD)
The North American Aerospace (formerly Air) Defense Command (NORAD), established in 1957, is a bi-national air defense organization between the United States and Canada. Originally aimed at deterring threats from Soviet bombers and ICBMs, NORAD has expanded following the end of the Cold War and the attacks of 9/11, and now provides for aerospace warnings from aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles as well as risks emanating from the interior of North America. NORAD, headquartered at Peterson Air Force Base near Colorado Springs, Colorado, is broken down into three regional commands: the Alaskan NORAD Region (ANR), the Canadian NORAD Region (CANR), and the Continental U.S. NORAD Region (CONR).

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