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Country Spotlight

Australia is a party to all major nonproliferation treaties and export control regimes. After developing a chemical warfare capability during World War II and collaborating with the UK on nuclear weapons testing, Australia no longer maintains offensive WMD programs. In 2021 Australia announced a deal to purchase American nuclear-powered submarines.

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Region   East Asia and the Pacific

31% World’s uranium exports

1985 Australia Group founded

12 British nuclear weapons tests hosted


  • Has never possessed or developed nuclear weapons
  • World’s third-largest producer and exporter of uranium
  • Party to the Treaty of Rarotonga, which established a nuclear weapons-free zone in the South Pacific


  • Has never possessed a biological warfare capacity
  • Conducts research on biological materials and biosecurity
  • Ratified the Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention (BTWC) in 1977


  • Will begin to produce its own guided hypersonic missiles
  • Is a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and was involved in drafting the Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC)
  • Deploys AGM-158 cruise missiles on its F/A-18A/B aircraft


  • Destroyed its chemical weapons stockpiles after World War II
  • Chairs the Australia Group, which enhances cooperation on controlling the spread of materials related to chemical weapons development
  • Ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1994

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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Australia Group (AG)

The Australia Group is an informal association of member states that aims to coordinate national export control laws to minimize the risk of proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.

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Treaty of Rarotonga

The South Pacific Nuclear-Free Zone (SPNFZ) Treaty of Rarotonga makes the South Pacific a NWFZ, prohibiting nuclear explosive devices in the region.

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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Investing in Global Health Security: How to Build a Fund for Pandemic Preparedness in 2022


Investing in Global Health Security: How to Build a Fund for Pandemic Preparedness in 2022

On April 21, 2022, immediately after G20 finance ministers and central bank governors reached consensus to establish a new Fund for preparedness at the World Bank, a group of leading experts and stakeholders from met to review progress and offer advice on next steps. This paper aims to inform next steps to structure, approve, and launch a new Fund, including the forthcoming consultative process led by the World Bank.

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