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Country Spotlight

Overview of Ukraine’s Nuclear, Chemical, Biological, and Missile Capabilities and Nonproliferation Activities

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Region   Former Soviet Union

1,240 Nuclear warheads inherited from the former Soviet Union

16 Intercontinental ballistic missile silos deactivated and destroyed

2014 Lost control over radiological material in Crimea after Russia annexed the territory

1992 Disassembled or transferred chemical weapons infrastructure by 1992


  • Transferred all nuclear weapons on Ukrainian territory to Russia under Lisbon Protocol
  • Relies on 15 nuclear reactors to generate over half of the country’s electricity
  • Fulfilled 2010 commitment to remove all Highly Enriched Uranium from its territory 


  • Has not engaged in biological weapons activities since independence in 1991
  • Joined a Cooperative Threat Reduction agreement with the U.S. to secure biological institutes
  • Continues to study biological agents at Ministry of Health and Veterinary laboratories


  • Inherited intercontinental ballistic missile design and production capabilities from the Soviet Union
  • Developing the Hrim-2, a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM)
  • Successfully tested its Neptune antiship missile in 2020


  • Territory used by Soviet government for chemical weapons storage and testing prior to 1991
  • Returned all chemical weapons to Russia for elimination following independence
  • Participates in training to respond to assassinations involving chemical weapons

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

The MTCR is an informal, non-treaty association of governments sharing common interests in the nonproliferation of missiles, unmanned air vehicles, and related technologies.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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