Upon Ukraine’s 1991 independence, over 1,700 Soviet nuclear weapons were left on its territory. Ukraine never possessed operational control of the weapons, and all were removed to Russia under a 1994 agreement in exchange for security assurances. Ukraine has accused Russia of violating the agreement with its 2014 annexation of Crimea, and again with the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
See Ukraine’s performance in:
Region Former Soviet Union
1,240 Nuclear warheads inherited from former Soviet Union and returned to Russia
16 Intercontinental ballistic missile silos deactivated and destroyed
2014 Lost control over radiological material in Crimea after Russia annexed the territory
1992 Disassembled or transferred chemical weapons infrastructure by 1992
- NEWS: The Russian-occupied Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant in southern Ukraine shut down all six reactors, removing the risk of serious radiological consequences
- Never possessed operational control of any nuclear weapons left on its territory after the fall of the Soviet Union
- Relies on 15 nuclear reactors to generate over half of the country’s electricity
- Fulfilled 2010 commitment to remove all Highly Enriched Uranium from its territory
Overview of The CNS Global Incidents and Trafficking Database
- Has not engaged in biological weapons activities since independence in 1991
- Joined a Cooperative Threat Reduction agreement with the U.S. to secure biological institutes
- Continues to study biological agents at Ministry of Health and Veterinary laboratories
- NEWS: On November 16, 2022, a Ukrainian air-defense missile struck Polish territory and resulted in two deaths; NATO and Poland exonorated Ukraine from blame
- Developing the Hrim-2, a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM)
- Successfully tested its Neptune antiship missile in 2020
Overview of The CNS Missile and SLV Launch Databases
Tutorial on Missiles and Other WMD Delivery Systems
- Territory used by Soviet government for chemical weapons storage and testing prior to 1991
- Returned all chemical weapons to Russia for elimination following independence
- Participates in training to respond to assassinations involving chemical weapons
NTI Resources on the War in Ukraine
As the war in Ukraine continues, destroying cities and causing the worst humanitarian crisis in Europe in a generation, NTI’s policy experts are fanning out across the news media to discuss the implications of Putin’s actions
Russian Propaganda Establishes a Dangerous, Permissive Environment
What happened at Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant and what are the implications?
Extensive resources on nuclear policy, biological threats, radiological security, cyber threats and more.
- Andrew Katell and Hanna Arhirova, “Explainer: Ukraine’s Nuclear Power Plant Shutdown Cuts Risks,” Associated Press News, September 12, 2022, www. apnews.com.
- Steven Erlanger and Marc Santora, “‘This Is Not Ukraine’s Fault’: Tensions Ease over Missile Strike in Poland,” The New York Times, November 17, 2022, www.nytimes.com.