Myanmar Flag for Myanmar

Country Spotlight

Myanmar is not believed to have either nuclear or biological weapons programs, and, despite accusations, there is no conclusive evidence of a chemical weapons program. Myanmar maintains diplomatic relations with North Korea, which is believed to contribute to Myanmar’s limited missile program. Myanmar is a party to most applicable treaties and international regimes.

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Region   East Asia and the Pacific

200 Employees of the Department of Atomic Energy

2007 Signed agreement with Russia for construction of a nuclear research center

1992 Signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)


Nuclear

  • Party to both the NPT and Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone since early 1990s
  • Established the Department of Atomic Energy within the Ministry of Science and Technology in 1997
  • Signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Russia in 2022 to cooperate on peaceful uses of nuclear energy

Myanmar Overview


Biological

  • Maintains a limited biotechnology sector, including operation of the Biotechnology Development Center at Pathein University, established in 2004
  • Ratified the Biological Weapons Convention in 2014
  • No evidence of a biological weapons program

Myanmar Overview


Missile

  • Possesses small number of surface-to-air missiles (SAM) from Russia and China
  • Officials visited missile-related facilities in North Korea in 2008
  • Reports of missile development cooperation with North Korea in 2022

Myanmar Overview


Chemical

  • Many allegations of a covert chemical weapons program, but no verifiable evidence
  • Ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention in 2015
  • Operates a small chemical industrial sector, but imports all its toxic industrial chemicals

Myanmar Overview

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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Bangkok Treaty

The SEANWFZ Treaty (Bangkok Treaty) preserves Southeast Asia as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone and free from weapons of mass destruction.

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Biological Weapons Convention (BTWC)

The BTWC mandates the elimination of existing biological weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using biological and toxin weapons.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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NPT

The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Facilities

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