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Armenia

Armenia does not possess a nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons program but does deploy ballistic missile systems. Armenia operates one nuclear reactor, which has garnered international concern about its safety due to seismic activity in the region. Armenia maintains a defense alliance with Russia through its membership in the Collective Security Treaty Organization.

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Region   Former Soviet Union

49 Estimated inventory of ballistic missiles, including Scud and Iskander-E

2 Nuclear research facilities

40 Percentage of Armenia’s electricity produced by the Metsamor nuclear power plant


Nuclear

  • Operates two nuclear research facilities and one nuclear power reactor (Metsamor), which receives fuel from Russia
  • International concern about the safety of Metsamor reactor due to seismic activity in the region that has previously shut down the reactor
  • Signed agreement with US in 2012 to improve export control after numerous incidents of Armenian citizens caught attempting to smuggle radioactive material

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Biological

  • Operated an anti-plague system responsible for defending USSR against biological attacks in the 1960s; now protects against infectious diseases 
  • Acceded to Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) in 1994
  • Does not possess biological weapons 


Missile

  • Inherited Tochka and Scud missiles from the Soviet Union following its collapse
  • Purchased Iskander-E (SS-26) missiles from Russia in 2016, which can carry conventional or nuclear warheads 
  • Reported use of ballistic missiles during the 44-day war with Azerbaijan in 2020


Chemical

  • Founding member of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and member of CWC 
  • Signed the Tashkent Agreement of the Commonwealth of Independent States in 1992, acknowledging Russia as official inheritor of Soviet chemical weapons
  • Does not possess chemical weapons

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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NPT

The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

The CIS is an association that coordinates the facilitation of free movement of goods, services, labor force, and capital between member states. It also promotes cooperation on security matters.

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Facilities

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Analysis

Armenia

Armenia Overview
Four Nuclear towers

Fact Sheet

Armenia Overview

Overview of Armenia's nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile capabilities and nonproliferation activities.


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