Estonia Flag for Estonia


Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, Estonia was home to major Soviet nuclear and military facilities. After it regained its independence in 1991, Estonia dismantled many of the Soviet-era facilities and joined both NATO and the European Union.

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Region   Former Soviet Union

100,000 tons Uranium processed during the Soviet Era

4 Nuclear facilities possessed during the Soviet Era

2004 Joined NATO and the European Union


  • Has received assistance from the IAEA, U.S., and other countries to help manage and secure its nuclear waste
  • Is considering constructing its first nuclear power plant
  • Has not pursued a nuclear weapons program since gaining independence


  • Has never possessed or pursued a bioweapons program
  • Strengthened export controls as a precondition for European Union membership


  • Does not possess an indigenous missile program
  • Purchased anti-tank Raytheon Javelin missiles from the U.S. in 2020


  • Has never possessed or pursued a chemical weapons program
  • Strengthened export controls as a precondition for European Union membership

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

NATO was founded in 1949 and has 28 Alliance Members. Its member countries are committed to sharing the risks and responsibilities as well as the benefits of collective security.

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