Estonia Flag for Estonia

Country Spotlight

Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, Estonia was home to major Soviet nuclear and military facilities. After it regained its independence in 1991, Estonia dismantled many of the Soviet-era facilities and joined both NATO and the European Union.

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Region   Former Soviet Union

4,013,000 tons Uranium ore processed during the Soviet Era

4 Nuclear facilities operated during the Soviet Era

2004 Joined NATO and the European Union


  • Has received assistance from the IAEA, U.S., and other countries to help manage and secure its nuclear waste
  • Considering construction of its first nuclear power plant by 2035 with foreign cooperation
  • Has not pursued a nuclear weapons program since gaining independence


  • Has never possessed or pursued a biological weapons program
  • Strengthened export controls as a precondition for European Union membership


  • Does not have an indigenous missile program
  • Purchasing Blue Spear anti-ship cruise missiles from Israel
  • Member of the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation


  • Has never possessed or pursued a chemical weapons program
  • Strengthened export controls as a precondition for European Union membership

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

NATO was founded in 1949 and has 32 Alliance Members. Its member countries are committed to sharing the risks and responsibilities as well as the benefits of collective security.

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