Latvia Flag for Latvia

Country Spotlight

Forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940, Latvia regained its independence in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed. Riga has since joined NATO and the European Union, and is a member of relevant nonproliferation organizations and regimes. Latvia does not possess or produce nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons.

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Region   Former Soviet Union

1961 The Salaspils research reactor became operational

14.4 kg Highly enriched uranium transferred to Russia in 2008

2017 Withdrew from a joint plan with Estonia and Lithuania to construct a nuclear power plant


  • No nuclear weapons pursuit or possession since 1991 independence
  • Free of highly enriched uranium (HEU) since 2008
  • Announced in 2022 a partnership with the U.S. under the FIRST program for nuclear energy cooperation


  • No biological weapons possession or development since 1991 independence
  • Member of the Australia Group


  • Does not field ballistic missiles, purchasing U.S. Naval Strike Missile anti-ship cruise missiles
  • Soviet-era missile production facilities decommissioned
  • Not a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), but abides by its guidelines


  • Has never possessed or sought to develop chemical weapons
  • Member of the Australia Group
  • Has maintained an export control system since 1995

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

NATO was founded in 1949 and has 32 Alliance Members. Its member countries are committed to sharing the risks and responsibilities as well as the benefits of collective security.

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Nuclear Suppliers Group

The NSG is a voluntary association of nuclear supplier countries that works to prevent nuclear proliferation by implementing guidelines for nuclear and nuclear-related exports.

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