Vietnam Flag for Vietnam

Country Spotlight

Vietnam is not known to have ever developed biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons. Since the Vietnam War, it has been vocal in supporting the complete elimination of chemical weapons and signed the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1993. Vietnam possesses a limited missile arsenal but does not indigenously produce them.

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Region   East Asia and the Pacific

2013 High enriched uranium reserves transferred to Russia

18 million Gallons of Agent Orange herbicide used by U.S. forces during Vietnam War

2010 Signed a 123 bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement with the U.S.


  • Is a member of Treaty of Bangkok, which established a nuclear weapons-free zone in Southeast Asia
  • Has considered constructing a nuclear energy facility since 1995, but construction has not yet begun
  • Adopted a nuclear energy law in 2008 to provide a legal framework for nuclear activities


  • Has never possessed an offensive bioweapons capability
  • Party to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety


  • Purchased Russian-made anti-ship and land attack cruise missiles in 2015
  • Possesses 2 surface-to-air missile systems


  • Has never possessed an offensive chemical weapons capability and supports their universal elimination
  • Was subjected to herbicide attacks from the U.S. between 1962 and 1971, though these are not considered chemical weapons by the OPCW

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW)

The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) bans the use, possession, testing, and transfer of nuclear weapons under international law.

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Bangkok Treaty

The SEANWFZ Treaty (Bangkok Treaty) preserves Southeast Asia as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone and free from weapons of mass destruction.

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Vietnam Overview

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Vietnam Overview

Overview of Vietnam's nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile capabilities and nonproliferation activities.

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