Vietnam Flag for Vietnam

Country Spotlight

Vietnam is not known to have ever developed biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons. Since the Vietnam War, it has been vocal in supporting the complete elimination of chemical weapons and signed the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1993. Vietnam possesses a limited missile arsenal but does not indigenously produce them.

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Region   East Asia and the Pacific

2013 High enriched uranium reserves transferred to Russia

11 million Gallons of Agent Orange herbicide used by U.S. forces during Vietnam War

2014 Signed a 123 bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement with the U.S. which expires in 2044


  • Is a member of Treaty of Bangkok, which established a nuclear weapon-free zone in Southeast Asia
  • Has considered constructing a nuclear power plant, but indefinitely postponed plans in 2016 due to economic conditions
  • Adopted a nuclear energy law in 2008 as a legal framework for nuclear activities


  • Has never possessed a biological weapons capability
  • Party to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety


  • Possesses Scud ballistic missiles acquired from the USSR and North Korea and has sought upgrades from international partners
  • Unveiled domestically-produced VCM-01 anti-ship cruise missile based on Russian design in 2020
  • Possesses surface-to-air missile systems


  • Has never possessed an offensive chemical weapons capability and supports their universal elimination
  • Was subjected to herbicide attacks from the U.S. between 1962 and 1971, though these are not considered chemical weapons by the OPCW

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW)

The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) bans the use, possession, testing, and transfer of nuclear weapons under international law.

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Bangkok Treaty

The SEANWFZ Treaty (Bangkok Treaty) preserves Southeast Asia as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone and free from weapons of mass destruction.

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Vietnam Overview

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Vietnam Overview

Overview of Vietnam's nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile capabilities and nonproliferation activities.

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