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    Nuclear-Waste Management
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The Soviet Union established a network of regional enterprises known as “Radon” in 1958 to manage nuclear and radioactive waste. By 1980, their network grew to include 15 facilities. In 2008, Ros RAO was founded in St. Petersburg and consolidated management for the other 14 branches of “Radon.” 1 The General Directorate is currently located in Moscow, with six branches in different federal districts.

Ros RAO began operations in 2009 and quickly stepped into the management of spent fuel, non-nuclear radioactive waste, and decommissioning services, especially of submarines. Ros RAO was initially envisioned as the national manager of spent fuel and radioactive waste, before NO RAO was created in 2011 to consolidate these activities. In the future, it sees itself as a global provider of back-end fuel cycle services.

The agency is also responsible for collection, transportation, processing, and storage of radioactive waste. 2 RosRAO was initially envisioned as the national manager of spent fuel and radioactive waste before NO RAO was created in 2011 to consolidate these activities. Now, RosRAO seeks to partner with NO RAO in creating technical systems for radioactive waste disposal. 3 The company aspires to be a global provider of back end fuel cycle services in the near future.

As part of the state system of materials accounting and control, RosRAO is responsible for maintaining records associated with radioactive material and waste. To improve agency operations, RosRAO partners with Russian entities and international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the American Nuclear Society.


Spent nuclear fuel
Spent nuclear fuel: Irradiated nuclear fuel. Once irradiated, nuclear fuel is highly radioactive and extremely physically hot, necessitating special remote handling. Fuel is considered “self protecting” if it is sufficiently radioactive that those who might seek to divert it would not be able to handle it directly without suffering acute radiation exposure.
Radioactive waste
Radioactive waste: Materials which are radioactive and for which there is no further use.
Fuel Cycle
Fuel Cycle: A term for the full spectrum of processes associated with utilizing nuclear fission reactions for peaceful or military purposes. The “front-end” of the uranium-plutonium nuclear fuel cycle includes uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication. The fuel is used in a nuclear reactor to produce neutrons that can, for example, produce thermal reactions to generate electricity or propulsion, or produce fissile materials for weapons. The “back-end” of the nuclear fuel cycle refers to spent fuel being stored in spent fuel pools, possible reprocessing of the spent fuel, and ultimately long-term storage in a geological or other repository.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
IAEA: Founded in 1957 and based in Vienna, Austria, the IAEA is an autonomous international organization in the United Nations system. The Agency’s mandate is the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, technical assistance in this area, and verification that nuclear materials and technology stay in peaceful use. Article III of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) requires non-nuclear weapon states party to the NPT to accept safeguards administered by the IAEA. The IAEA consists of three principal organs: the General Conference (of member states); the Board of Governors; and the Secretariat. For additional information, see the IAEA.


  1. "История" History, ФГУП «РосРАО» (Federal Unitary Enterprise “RosRAO”), www.rosrao.ru.
  2. "О предприятии” About the Enterprise, ФГУП «РосРАО» (Federal Unitary Enterprise “RosRAO”), www.rosrao.ru.
  3. "Перспективное развитие" Perspective Development, ФГУП «РосРАО» (Federal Unitary Enterprise “RosRAO”), www.rosrao.ru.


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