Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
NAM Established: 1961
NAM Membership: 120 Members (May 2012) — Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao Peoples' Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor Leste, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Observer States: 17 Observer States – Argentina, Armenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Paraguay, Serbia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uruguay.
Observer Organizations: 10 Observer Organizations – African Union, Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization, Common-wealth Secretariat, Hostosian National Independence Movement, Kanak Socialist National Liberation Front, League of Arab States, Organization of Islamic Cooperation, South Center, United Nations, Secretariat of the Commonwealth Nations, World Peace Council.
Background: The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War, largely on the initiative of then-Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito, as an organization of States that did not seek to formally align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, but sought to remain independent or neutral. The basic concept for the group originated in 1955 during discussions that took place at the Asia-Africa Bandung Conference held in Indonesia. Subsequently, a preparatory meeting for the First NAM Summit Conference was held in Cairo, Egypt from 5-12 June 1961. At this meeting, participants discussed the goals of a policy of nonalignment, which were adopted as criteria for membership. These were as follows:
- The country should have adopted an independent policy based on the coexistence of States with different political and social systems and on non-alignment or should be showing a trend in favor of such a policy;
The country concerned should be consistently supporting the Movements for national independence;
- The country should not be a member of a multilateral military alliance concluded in the context of Great Power conflicts;
- If a country has a bilateral military agreement with a Great Power, or is a member of a regional defense pact, the agreement or pact should not be one deliberately concluded in the context of Great Power conflicts;
- If it has conceded military bases to a Foreign Power the concession should not have been made in the context of Great Power conflicts.
The First NAM Summit Conference took place in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in September 1961.
Objectives: NAM has sought to "create an independent path in world politics that would not result in member States becoming pawns in the struggles between the major powers." It identifies the right of independent judgment, the struggle against imperialism and neo-colonialism, and the use of moderation in relations with all big powers as the three basic elements that have influenced its approach. At present, an addition goal is facilitating a restructuring of the international economic order.
Principal Organs: NAM does not have a formal constitution or permanent secretariat, and its administration is non-hierarchical and rotational. Decisions are made by consensus, which requires substantial agreement, but not unanimity.
Chair: At each Summit, a new Head of State formally becomes the chair, and assumes that position until the next Summit. The chair is responsible for promoting the principles and activities of NAM, and the Foreign Ministry and Permanent Mission in New York of the Chair's State assumes administrative responsibility.
Working groups, contact groups, task forces, and committees: These groups meet as often as is necessary. At present, they include: NAM High-Level Working Group for the Restructuring of the United Nations; NAM Working Group on Human Rights; NAM Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations; Ministerial Committee on Methodology; NAM Working Group of the Coordinating Bureau on Methodology; NAM Working Group on Disarmament; Committee of Palestine; Contact Group on Cyprus; Task Force on Somalia; Task Force on Bosnia and Herzegovina; Non-Aligned Security Council Caucas; Coordinator Countries of the Action Program for Economic Cooperation; and the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation.
Coordinating Bureau: This ambassadorial-level body, based at the United Nations in New York, reviews and facilitates activities between the working groups, contact groups, task forces, and committees. It is also charged with strengthening coordination and cooperation among NAM States. The Chair's Permanent Representative to the UN in New York functions as the CoB chair.
Troika: Created in 1997, this body consists of past, serving and future Chairs, and operates at the discretion of the incumbent chair.
Non-Aligned Security Council Caucus: The Caucus consists of NAM countries who are elected to the UN Security Council as rotating members. These States seek to adopt unified positions and to reflect the decisions and positions adopted at NAM Summits and Ministerial Conferences.
Joint Coordinating Committee: This committee of NAM and the Group of 77 members meets regularly in New York to coordinate and promote the interests of developing countries in the international community. It was established in 1994.
Meetings convened regularly by various NAM bodies include: Summit Conferences; Ministerial Conferences; Ministerial Meetings held in New York during the regular session of the UN General Assembly; Extraordinary Ministerial Meetings, Ministerial Meetings of the Coordinating Bureau, meetings of the Ministerial Committee on Methodology, meetings of the Standing Ministerial Committee on Economic Cooperation; and Ministerial Meetings in various fields of International Cooperation. The Summit Conference of Heads of States or Government, which is composed of a political issues committee and an economic and social issues committee, is the highest decision-making body of NAM, and generally convenes every third years. The Summit is preceded by senior official and ministerial meetings, which serve preparatory functions.
2013: On 21 March, the NAM submitted eight working papers to the 2013 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT. The first working paper reaffirmed nuclear disarmament as NAM’s highest priority and outlined elements for a plan of action to eliminate nuclear weapons. The second paper called for security assurances against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. The third affirmed the inalienable right to develop research, production and uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The fourth working paper addressed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. In it, the NAM called for immediate and unconditional cessation of all nuclear weapon tests and the closure of all nuclear weapon test sites. The fifth addressed the importance of the IAEA safeguards system, urged states party to the treaty to strengthen the technical character of IAEA consistent its statute, and called for the implementation of IAEA resolutions GC(54)/RES/11 and GC(56)/RES/13 to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards. The sixth recognized the IAEA as the sole competent authority responsible for verifying the fulfillment of safe-guard obligations and stressed the importance of strict observance of article III of the NPT. The seventh addressed nuclear-weapon-free zones, welcoming all efforts to establish such zones worldwide and supporting all areas that have declared themselves a nuclear free zone. Finally, the eighth working paper addressed regional issues in the Middle East, strongly supporting the establishment of a nuclear-weapons-free zone in the Middle East.
On 17 April, the NAM issued a statement saluting Venezuela’s 14 April elections as democratic and transparent, congratulating President Nicolás Maduro Moros and calling for peace, tolerance, and harmony among Venezuelans.
On 22 April, the NAM gave a statement at the 2013 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT. In this statement, the NAM stressed that nuclear disarmament is their highest priority. To achieve the goal of total elimination of nuclear weapons, the NAM thus stressed the importance of strengthening the institutions of the NPT and relying on effective, non-discriminatory multi-lateral actions. The NAM also called on nuclear weapon states to fulfill their legal obligations under article IV and eliminate their nuclear arsenals.
On 24 April, the NAM gave a second statement to the PrepCom on the implementation of the provisions of the Treaty. In it, the NAM expressed concern with the lack of progress in the field of nuclear disarmament and stated that development and improvement of nuclear weapons undermined nuclear disarmament commitments. The NAM also urged effective, non-discriminatory implementation of all obligations under the treaty related to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
On 25 April, the NAM gave a statement at the PrepCom on nuclear disarmament and security assurances. Calling on Article IV of the NPT, the 2010 Review Conference’s “action plan on nuclear disarmament,” and the conclusion of the International Court of Justice that there exists an obligation to pursue nuclear disarmament, the NAM called on nuclear weapons states to accelerate concrete progress on the steps leading to nuclear disarmament.
On 26 April, the NAM gave a statement at the PrepCom on implementation of the provisions of the Treaty relating to non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, safeguards, and nuclear-weapon-free zones. In this statement, the NAM referred to Article I and II of the NPT to urge states not to transfer nuclear weapons or control over nuclear weapons. The NAM encouraged states to enact comprehensive safeguards agreements and stressed the importance of implementing IAEA General Conference resolutions GC(54)RESlll and GC(56)RES/13. Reiterating its support for nuclear-weapon-free zones, the NAM also insisted nuclear weapon states provide legal assurances against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons in the context of nuclear weapon free zones.
On 29 April, the NAM gave a statement to the PrepCom asserting the importance of the implementation of the 1995 Middle East resolution and the action plan on the Middle East adopted by the 2010 NPT Review Conference.
On 30 April, the NAM gave a statement at the 2013 Preparatory Committee meeting on the inalienable right of all parties to the Treaty to develop research, production, and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and in conformity with articles I and II.
On 2 May, the NAM gave its closing statement for the 2013 Preparatory Committee meeting. In this statement, the NAM criticized the factual accuracy and objectivity of the Chairman’s Summary of the meeting.
On 23 July, Mr. G. Hossein Dehghani of Iran gave a statement on behalf of the NAM before the UN Security Council regarding the “Situation in the Middle East; including the Question of Palestine.”
On 26 September, H.E. Dr. Hassan Rouhani, President of Iran gave a statement on behalf of the NAM to the High Level Meeting of the General Assembly on Nuclear Disarmament. The President of Iran stressed that nonproliferation and disarmament are mutually reinforcing and that the possession of nuclear weapons is intolerable. Furthermore, he also proposed a “roadmap” from the NAM on disarmament: First, the early commencement of negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament on nuclear weapons for the prohibition of their possession, development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use and for their destruction; second, the designation of the 26 of September every year as an international day to renew the resolve to completely eliminate nuclear weapons; and third, the convening of a High-level International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament in 5 years to review progress in this regard. The President of Iran also stated on behalf of NAM that steps for de-targeting, de-alerting or reducing the number of nuclear weapons are not and should not be a substitute for their total elimination.
On 7 October, the NAM made a statement to the United Nations General Assembly First Committee 68th session. In its statement, the Non-Aligned Movement expressed its satisfaction with the High-Level Meeting that took place in September 2013. It noted concern over the lack of progress by the nuclear-weapon states to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear weapons. Furthermore, NAM also reaffirmed that all NNWS should receive complete, non-discriminatory and legally-binding assurances against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons under any circumstances. NAM also reaffirmed the importance of the Conference on Disarmament as the sole multilateral negotiating body on disarmament. Regarding the humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons, the NAM stated that while it recognizes the growing significance of this dimension for many states, this should not distract from the ultimate goal of nuclear disarmament.
On 22 October, the Non-Aligned Movement made a statement regarding the importance of multilateral disarmament machinery consisting of the Conference on Disarmament, the UNDC and the First Committee. The NAM stressed the importance of preserving and strengthening the role of this machinery and continued to call for the CD to agree to a balanced and comprehensive programme of work.
On 30 October, the Non-Aligned Movement made a statement on regional security. NAM emphasized that Israel renounce any possession of nuclear weapons, accede to the NPT without precondition and further delay and place all nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards. Furthermore, NAM expressed its disappointment at the postponement of a conference on the establishment of a zone free of nuclear weapons in the Middle East. It urged the co-conveners to seek out credible assurances regarding the unconditional participation of Israel and to convene the conference as soon as possible to avoid any negative repercussions for the credibility of the NPT.
2012: On 28 March, Singapore’s Prime Minister called on the IAEA to support regional organizations on nuclear safety and security.
On 24 April, the NAM submitted eight working papers to the 2012 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT. The first of the working papers set out the procedure and other arrangements for an effective and successful outcome of the Preparatory Committee and the 2015 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The second stressed the importance of security assurances against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. The third paper addressed the inalienable right to develop research, production and uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The NAM stressed the importance of the IAEA as the main vehicle for the transfer of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and stressed the importance of safeguards and the significance of maintaining the responsibilities of IAEA. The fourth working paper addressed nuclear testing, stating that NAM welcomes the signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and stresses the importance of achieving universal adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. If all nuclear-weapon states do this as well, it should contribute to nuclear disarmament. The fifth paper addressed concerns about safeguards, stating that the IAEA is the most appropriate actor to address verification and safeguards issues. NAM also called for the implementation of IAEA Resolution GC(54)/RES/11 on strengthening the effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the safeguards system and application of the Model Additional Protocol. The sixth paper addressed verification methods. The NAM stressed the need to achieve worldwide application of the comprehensive safeguards system and encouraged nuclear-weapon states to put their nuclear facilities under the IAEA. The seventh working paper submitted by the NAM addressed Nuclear Weapon Free zones. The NAM welcomes all efforts to establish nuclear weapon free zones worldwide and will continue to support all areas that have declared themselves a nuclear free zone. Finally, the eighth working paper sought to address nuclear disarmament. The paper argued that while the progress on disarmament has been positive, there is still much work to be done in that area, as NAM still sees a heavy reliance on nuclear weapons by the states that hold such weapons. The NAM also encourages the work towards the construction of a comprehensive framework to “mutually reinforce instruments for the achievement and maintenance of a world without nuclear weapons.”
On 30 April, the NAM gave a statement at the 2012 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT. In this statement the NAM called for a balanced and non-discriminatory effort to strengthen all three pillars of the NPT. Furthermore, NAM stated that a world free from nuclear weapons is the Group of NAM States Parties’ highest priority.
On 4 May, the NAM gave a statement at the 2012 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT on the Chapter 1 Specific Issue “Nuclear disarmament and security assurances.” In it the NAM reaffirmed its position on nuclear disarmament, calling for full implementation of Article VI of the Treaty, while expressing its deep concern over the continued lack of progress in this field. NAM also called for nuclear-weapon states and NATO for the complete exclusion of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons from their military doctrines.
On 7 May, the NAM gave a statement at the 2012 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT on the Chapter 2 Specific Issue “Implementation of the provisions of the Treaty relating to non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, safeguards and nuclear-weapon-free-zones.” In it the NAM stated that it is the view of the Group that any horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon sharing by States Parties constitutes a clear violation of the non-proliferation obligations under Articles I and II of the Treaty. NAM also strongly supports the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East.
On 8 May, the NAM gave a statement at the 2012 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT on the Chapter 2 Specific Issue “Implementation of the provisions of the Treaty relating to non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, safeguards and nuclear-weapon-free-zones.” In it the NAM demanded that Israel renounce possession of nuclear weapons, accede to the Treaty without any precondition or further delay as a non-nuclear-weapon State, promptly place all its nuclear facilities under IAEA full-scope safeguards in accordance with UNSCR 487 (1981), and conduct all of its nuclear-related activities in full conformity with the non-proliferation regime.
On 9 May, the NAM gave a statement at the 2012 Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2015 Review Conference of the NPT on the Chapter 3 Specific Issue “Implementation of the provisions of the Treaty relating to the inalienable right of all Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination.” In it the NAM reaffirmed the importance of the right of States Parties to participate in the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as well as their right to cooperation among themselves, in particular in the technological field, in contributing to the further development of the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, with due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the world. NAM further highlighted the obligation of developed countries in the fulfillment of the legitimate right of developing countries to nuclear energy.
From 26-31 August, the 16th Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Movement was held in Tehran, Iran. During the conference, the Heads of State or Government discussed a variety of issues, The Final Document contained positions on global, regional and sub-regional and development, social and human rights issues. It was decided that the Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela will host the XVII Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in 2015. In the Final Document, the Heads of States or Government reaffirmed the Movement’s commitments, especially to establishing a peaceful and prosperous world. Furthermore, the Heads of States or Government also affirmed the continued adherence to all principled positions and decisions made by the 15th NAM Summit that concluded in 2009.
The Non-Aligned Movement expressed concern over the difficult and complex situation in disarmament and security and the growth of unilateralism. The Final Document calls for renewed efforts to achieve nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. The NAM welcomes the adoption of the General Assembly Resolution 66/32 on the Promotion of multilateralism in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. The Final Document also expressed concern over the threat to humanity posed by the continued existence of nuclear weapons, as well as about the lack of, or slow progress towards disarmament and total elimination of nuclear arms. The Final Document emphasized that any progress made towards nonproliferation and disarmament is a benefit to international security. It also reaffirmed that global and regional approaches and confidence building measures should be pursued simultaneously. In addition, the NAM called upon the Nuclear Weapon States to comply with their commitments not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against the Non-Nuclear Weapon States.
The Final Document reiterated the NAM belief that the Conference on Disarmament is the only multilateral negotiating body on disarmament. The Final Document also called for a strengthened role of the IAEA in preparing for regional and international disasters in nuclear accidents that includes education on crisis management.
The NAM states urged the UN Secretary-General and the three cosponsors of the 1995 Resolution on the Middle East to fully implement the establishment of a Middle East zone free from nuclear weapons. Furthermore, the Summit condemned Israel for its production of nuclear weapons and demanded that Israel renounce its nuclear weapons and join the NPT at the earliest possible date.
The Final Document also commended the involvement of members of the NAM at the 2010 NPT Review Conference, particularly the representative of the Philippines, who served as the Review Conference’s president. The NAM States stressed the importance of implementing the action plan adopted by the conference.
2011: On 21 January the Chairman of the Vienna Chapter of the NAM issued a note verbale regarding his visit to Iranian nuclear facilities at the invitation of Iran. The report included Iranian rational for their reactor and uranium enrichment programs, the status and extent of IAEA inspections, and statements from meetings with the Minister of Foreign Affairs in which Iran reaffirmed its commitment to pursuing peaceful nuclear power while complying with the NPT.
On 25 May H.E. Mr. Marty Natalegawa, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia, hosted the XVI Ministerial Conference and Commemorative Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement in Bali. The ministers reviewed the progress of the Sharm El Sheikh Plan of Action, an eight-point programme to revitalize the NAM adopted in July 2009. They also adopted an outcome document outlining their vision of the NAM for the next fifty years, and a commemorative declaration marking the fiftieth anniversary of the NAM's establishment. Those at the meeting also affirmed the admission of Azerbaijan and Fiji into the Movement and prepared for the forthcoming NAM Summit in Tehran in 2012. A portion of the conference was dedicated to the issue at hand of Palestinian prisoners in Israel and in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem.
2010: On 3 March the NAM made a statement to the IAEA Board of Governors in support of Iran's nuclear program. The NAM stated that "all verification issues, including those related to Iran, should be resolved within the IAEA framework."
On 29 March Indonesian Ambassador H.E. Mr. Hasan Kleib made a statement on behalf of the NAM to the 2010 United Nations Disarmament Commission (UNDC). The NAM called on the United States and Russia to fulfill their disarmament obligations and to conclude a post-START agreement. It also called on the UNDC to play a bigger role in facilitating rapid movement to achieve disarmament goals and the Conference on Disarmament (CD) to agree on a program of work and establish an ad hoc committee on nuclear disarmament. The NAM called for international cooperation in realizing the goals of the fourth disarmament decade, including the issue of small arms and light weapons.
On 28 April the NAM submitted a Working Paper to the 2010 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The paper consisted of a three phase plan for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. In phase one the NAM called for a treaty banning the production of fissile material, an end to all weapons testing and development of new technologies for upgrading existing weapons systems, a convention prohibiting the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons, the establishment of a nuclear weapons free zone in the Middle East, conclusion of a new START treaty, and a moratorium on the production of fissile materials pending the conclusion of a fissile material treaty. The second phase called for the establishment of a single multilateral comprehensive verification system that included separating nuclear warheads from their delivery vehicles, and transferring nuclear materials to peaceful purposes. The third phase extended beyond 2025 calling for the full implementation of a treaty eliminating all nuclear weapons and its verification regime.
On 28 April the NAM submitted an additional working paper to the NPT Review Conference covering such issues as nuclear doctrines and sharing, nuclear disarmament and testing, security assurances, nuclear weapons free zones, safeguards and verification, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.
On 3 May Dr. R.M. Marty M. Natalegawa, foreign affairs minister of Indonesia, spoke on behalf of the NAM states party to the NPT before the 2010 NPT Review Conference in New York. The NAM recognized the new START treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation but noted there needed to be "more concrete uniform and systematic nuclear disarmament efforts involving all nuclear weapons states." Additionally, the NAM highlighted the importance of establishing main committees in the 2010 Review Conference to deliberate on the 13 Practical Steps, develop proposals on the implementation of the Middle East resolution adopted by the 1995 Review Conference, and adopt unconditional security assurances for non-nuclear-weapon states. The NAM voiced support for a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East and urged Israel's accession to the NPT and placement of all its nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards.
On 28 May Egyptian Ambassador Maged Abdelaziz spoke on behalf of the NAM states party to the NPT before the 16th Plenary meeting of the NPT Review Conference. He stated that the final document adopted by the RevCon was "a step forward towards realization of the goals and objectives of the treaty." The NAM noted that although the final document did not reflect the plan submitted by the NAM prior to the conference start, that the Movement intends to continue working towards a nuclear-weapon-free world in accordance with its priorities until the next review conference in 2015.
On 8 June it was reported that the NAM submitted a letter to the IAEA voicing again its support for Iran's right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy. According to media reports the NAM also expressed support for the nuclear swap declaration between Iran, Turkey and Brazil that was signed in Tehran in May. The deal commits Iran to transfer 1,200kg (2,640 lb) of its low-enriched uranium to Turkey in exchange for 120kg (264 lb) of 19.75 percent-enriched nuclear fuel for Tehran Research Reactor.
During the 2010 General Review Conference of the IAEA on 20-24 September, the NAM presented a statement arguing that stability in the Middle East would be impossible given the current massive military capability imbalances, particularly in regards to nuclear weapons. This directly critiqued U.S. action to block a resolution tabled by several Arab states calling for Israel to join the NPT. Egypt on behalf of the NAM presented a resolution calling for the universalization of the NPT in the Middle East as well as the establishment of the NWFZ in the region. Egypt also made a statement against "selective approaches" to non-proliferation and the undermining effect on the nonproliferation regime that such an approach has, speaking in reference to a draft resolution presented by the Arab League states entitled "Israeli Nuclear Capabilities."
On 25 September, Ahmed Aboul Gheit, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Egypt, spoke on behalf of the NAM before the U.N. General Assembly. In his statement he emphasized the contribution of the NAM to multilateral efforts to maintain and promote global peace and called for reform of the U.N. Security Council to better reflect the current political realities.
2009: On 15 January the Permanent Representative of Cuba to the United Nations submitted a letter to the Secretary-General containing a statement from the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement on the non-compliance by Israel with the Security Council resolution 1860 (2009) and the escalation of the Israeli military aggression against the Gaza Strip. The letter condemned Israeli military actions and called for immediate cessation of all military activities and violence in accordance with resolution 1860.
On 17 February, Ambassador Oscar de los Reyes (Cuba) addressed the OPCW Executive Council on behalf of the NAM. The statement emphasized the importance of decision-making by consensus, called on possessor states to comply with destruction deadlines, and welcomed NAM member Iraq as the newest party to the CWC.
On 14 April, the Indonesian ambassador made a statement at the UN Disarmament Commission on behalf of the NAM. He repeated NAM's call for "an international conference, at the earliest possible date, with the objective of obtaining an agreement on a phased program for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time."
On 27-30 April, the NAM Coordinating Bureau met in Havana, Cuba to discuss the upcoming XV Conference of Heads of State in Sharm-el Sheikh, Egypt on 11-16 July, and debated various issues of global concern. The Ministerial Meeting reaffirmed the five principles of the NAM and discussed regional and sub-regional political issues, human rights, social and developmental issues, the Responsibility to Protect, in regards to preserving multilateralism, and UN reform.
At the 2009 NPT PrepCom from 4-15 May, the Indonesian representative made a series of statements on behalf of NAM. He asserted that "the status of nuclear-weapons States is... transitional" and that "the achievement of nuclear disarmament is the ultimate objective." He further expressed NAM's support for the CTBT, argued for the creation of a nuclear weapon-free zone in the Middle East, and called for the "negotiation of a universal, unconditional, and legally binding instrument on security assurances to non-nuclear weapon states against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons."
On 12 June, it was reported that NAM had issued a statement on the subject of the Iranian nuclear program in which it expressed its support for Iran's right to the use of peaceful nuclear energy. The statement was read to the IAEA Board of Governors the following Monday by the representative from Cuba.
On 15 July, NAM concluded its 15th summit meeting at an Egyptian Red Sea Resort in Sharm el-Sheikh. NAM leaders announced their continued commitment to the elimination of nuclear weapons, support for nuclear weapon-free-zones, especially in the Middle East, and the use of peaceful nuclear energy.
On 23 July Permanent Representative of Egypt to the UN Ambassador Maged Abdelaziz made a statement on behalf of the NAM on the responsibility to protect (R2P) populations against genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The NAM raised concerns about potential misuse of R2P by expanding its applications to legitimize "invasive unilateralism" in internal affairs of states. The statement voiced the NAM's approval of continued dialogue on the R2P within the General Assembly.
On 11 September Permanent Representative of Egypt to the UN Ambassador Maged Abdelaziz sent identical letters on behalf of NAM to the President of the UN Security Council (UNSC) and UN Secretary-General. The letters were sent in connection to the UNSC Nuclear Nonproliferation Summit taking place on 24 September and contained excerpts from the Final Declaration adopted by the NAM at its Heads of States Summit in Sharm el-Sheigh in July 2009. The NAM indicated its positions on a variety of nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation issues, with an expectation that they would be taken into account by the UNSC summit.
On 5 October the Indonesian Representative made a statement on behalf of the NAM to the General Assembly on all disarmament and international security agenda items. He voiced NAM's support for nuclear disarmament, calling on NWS to accomplish the total elimination of nuclear arsenals and to respect the inalienable right of all nations to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The NAM demanded that Israel accede to the NPT and place all its nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards. The NAM also expressed support for the BWC, CWC and Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention and called for universal cooperation in implementing these accords.
On 27 October, the IAEA Secretariat received a letter from the Arab Republic of Egypt on behalf of the Vienna Chapter of the NAM, with comments on Resolution 1887 adopted by the Security Council on 24 September. The letter expressed the Movement's dissatisfaction with the resolution's emphasis on obligations and controls placed on non-nuclear-weapon states as opposed to nuclear disarmament measures, rejected setting new conditions and prerequisites for nuclear exports that are contrary to the IAEA Statute, and noted with regret that the resolution did not prohibit attacks or threat of attacks against peaceful nuclear.
2008: On 13 February, a meeting was held between the Iranian delegation and the NAM Caucus in the Security Council. The purpose of this meeting, requested by the Iranian delegation, was to exchange views on the latest developments regarding the Iranian nuclear issue in advance of an imminent third sanctions resolution.
On 14 February, a letter from the Permanent Representative of Cameroon was circulated, informing members of the nomination by the African Group of H.E. Mr. Boniface Guwa Chidyausiki, Permanent Representative of Zimbabwe to the UN, as the NAM candidate for the Chair of the Third session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 NPT Review Conference. A Note Verbale was circulated on 19 February setting a deadline for delegations to send comments on this nomination.
On 26 February, NAM States Parties to the NPT agreed to nominate Mr. Chidyausiki as the NAM candidate for the Chair of the Third NPT PrepCom. On 27 February, the Chair conveyed the Coordinating Bureau's decision through letters to Mr. Volodymyr Yelchenko, Chairman of the Second NPT PrepCom, the Secretariat of the PrepCom, and all NAM States parties to the NPT. The Chair also informed all UN member States parties to the NPT of this decision.
On 3 March, the NAM Caucus in the Security Council met to exchange views on the format of the Security Council meeting on Nonproliferation to take place the same day. The Security Council voted to adopt Resolution 1803 which continued sanctions on Iran. Member States Burkina Faso, Libya, Panama, South Africa, Vietnam, and Observers China, and Costa Rica voted in favor while Indonesia abstained.
On 12 March, the Chair and the Permanent Representative of Indonesia, in his capacity as Coordinator of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, met with H.E. Mr. Volodymyr Yelchenko, Chairman of the Second session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 NPT Review Conference.
On 25 March, Mr. Jean Francis Zinsou of Benin submitted the new NAM Working Paper to Working Group I of the 2008 substantive session of the United Nations Disarmament Commission (UNDC) as a contribution for its outcome document. On 7 April, Indonesia delivered a statement in its capacity as Coordinator of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, at the United Nations Disarmament Commission (UNDC) Substantive Session.
On 15 April, NAM and China presented a position paper during the general debate of the Second Review Conference of CWC held in The Hague, from 7 to 18 April 2008. The paper called on possessor States to complete the destruction of all chemical weapons including abandoned weapons before the extended deadline. NAM and China pledged to support activities related to the universalization of the Convention.
On 28 April, H.E. Mr. I Gusti Agung Wesaka Puja of Indonesia delivered a statement on behalf of the NAM in the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the NPT, in Geneva, Switzerland.
On 5 June, the Chair circulated for information the statements delivered by NAM at the IAEA Board of Governors Meeting on 2 June during the consideration of agenda items 7a) The Safeguards Implementation Report for 2007 and 7c) Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007) and 1803 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
On 3 July, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran invited the NAM troika and the members of the NAM caucus in the Security Council to a working luncheon. In this context, the Foreign Minister of Iran briefed the participants on the latest developments on Iran's nuclear issue.
On 11 July, as agreed by the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, Indonesia submitted a Working Paper entitled "Enhancing International Assistance in the Implementation of the Programme of Action in Small Arms and Light Weapons" to the Third Biennial Meeting of States to consider the implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in all its aspects (BMS-3).
The 14th Ministerial Conference was held in Tehran from 27-30 July. Paragraphs 98-151 of the final document address disarmament and international security. Ministers released a statement on the Iranian nuclear issue, which emphasized States' inalienable right to use atomic energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination. The Ministers recognized the IAEA as the sole authority for verifying safeguards and welcomed the continuing cooperation being extended by Iran to the IAEA.
On 6 October, Indonesia delivered a statement during the general debate of the UN First Committee on behalf of the NAM.
On 14 October, the preliminary position of the Non-Aligned Movement on the agenda for the 2009 United Nations' Disarmament Commission (UNDC) was circulated by the Chair to NAM delegations as well as to all Permanent Missions to the UN through Note NAM/321/2008.
On 17 October, the Chair circulated the 6 draft resolutions (L.20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26) and the draft decision (L.22) to be presented by NAM at the First Committee during the 63rd session of the General Assembly. On 28 October, Note Verbale NAM/346/2008 was circulated reminding NAM delegations that on 31 October action would be taken on the draft resolutions and the draft decision presented by NAM in the First Committee.
On 27 November, the Chair reminded NAM members that action would be taken in the General Assembly Plenary on the resolutions and decisions adopted by the First Committee, including those presented by NAM. In this regard, the Chair highlighted the need for NAM members to participate in this session and support the NAM resolutions and decision.
On 2 December, Cuba addressed the CWC Conference of States Parties on behalf of the NAM.
2007: On 5 February the Coordinating Bureau adopted a "Statement on the recent statements of the Israeli Prime Minister regarding Israel's possession of nuclear weapons." As requested by the Iranian delegation this document was sent to the Secretary-General for its circulation as an official document (A/61/735-S/2007/73). The statement was also circulated to the Conference on Disarmament on 7 February.
On 9 March, as agreed in the last CoB meeting, a letter was sent to H.E. Mr. Yuyika Amano, President-designate of the first session of the Preparatory Committee of the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the NPT extending him an invitation of the NAM States Parties to the NPT to exchange views regarding the next PrepCom meeting. In response to the aforementioned request, Mr. Amano met with the NAM Working Group on Disarmament on 26 March.
On 12 April, the Chair circulated a Note Verbale of the Permanent Mission of Indonesia, in its capacity as coordinator of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, appending the Working Paper by the Non-Aligned Movement for Working Group I of the 2007 substantive session of the United Nations Disarmament Commission (UNDC). This Working Paper was submitted to the Secretariat of the UNDC for its circulation as an official document.
On 27 April, the Chair circulated — for NAM members' information — eight Working Documents, agreed by the Group of NAM States Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) on 26 April. These documents (WP.5-WP.12) were formally presented on behalf of the Movement to the First Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the NPT. A ninth document on peaceful uses of nuclear energy was also agreed, as a result of consultations conducted in New York and Vienna (WP.16).
On 22 June, the Chair circulated the statement to be delivered by Indonesia on behalf of NAM, at the General Debate of the Open-ended Working Group for the Fourth Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-IV). The Working Paper (A/AC.268/2007/WP.2) submitted on behalf of NAM at the Open-ended Working Group for the SSOD-IV was circulated.
On 22 August, the Chair circulated for NAM members information, a copy of the statement read by Cuba, on behalf of NAM and other State Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention, at the Meeting of Experts, on 20 August.
On 4 September, the Chair circulated the statement by Indonesia, on behalf of NAM in its capacity as Coordinator of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament on 31 August at the open-ended Working Group for the Fourth Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-IV) and the Working Paper presented by NAM at the last session of that meeting.
On 8 October, as agreed by the NAM Working on Disarmament, the Chair circulated for delegations information, the statement read the same day by the Permanent Representative of Indonesia, in his capacity as Coordinator of the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, at the General Debate of the First Committee during the 62nd session of the General Assembly.
On 3 December, the Chair circulated the statement delivered by Cuba, in its capacity as Chair of the NAM Vienna Chapter during the consideration of agenda item 4c) Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006) and 1747 (2007) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, at the IAEA Board of Governors' Meeting held in Vienna, 22-23 November 2007.
On 12 December, the Chair circulated the statement delivered on 10 December by the Permanent Representative of Cuba to the United Nations Office in Geneva, on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement and other States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) at the 2007 meeting of States Parties to the BWC.
On 18 December, the Chair circulated, for NAM delegations' information, the Working Paper entitled "Proposals for improving national implementation of the Convention and regional and sub-regional cooperation", presented by NAM and other States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) during the Annual Meeting of States Parties to the BWC held in Geneva, 10-14 December 2007.
2006: The 14th Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned Movement was held in Havana, Cuba, from 11-16 September 2006. The Member States adopted a Final Document, which discussed a range of global, regional, and sub-regional socio-political and security issues including disarmament, threat of use of force, and international security.
The Final Document condemns the categorization of States as good or evil and adoption of doctrine of pre-emptive strikes, which includes attack by nuclear weapons. On disarmament, the document stresses that efforts for nuclear nonproliferation should be parallel to nuclear disarmament. In this regard, the Summit calls for an international conference to agree on a phased program for nuclear disarmament.
The Summit expressed concern over the strategic defense doctrines of NWS, including the NATO Alliance Strategic Concept, which depend on nuclear weapons for their security. The NWS were reminded that development of new types of nuclear weapons would violate their commitments undertaken during the conclusion of the CTBT. It is also noted that implementation of national missile defense systems could lead to an arms race.
The Final Document recommends that a universal legally binding instrument on security assurances should be concluded as an interim measure awaiting complete nuclear disarmament. As a precursor to a legal instrument, it called upon the NWS to give commitments to NNWS for non-use or not to threaten the use of nuclear weapons.
There was support for the establishment of a WMD-free zone in the Middle East. It was noted that on the path towards such a zone, the first step should be placing all Israeli nuclear facilities under IAEA full-scope safeguards and Israel joining the NPT as a NNWS and then declaring Middle East as a NWFZ.
The Ministerial Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement was held in Putrajaya, Malaysia from 27 — 30 May. At this meeting, a statement on the nuclear issue in Iran was released. The statement reaffirmed the movement's belief in the basic right of states to use atomic energy for peaceful purposes. The ministers expressed their belief that all issues of safeguards and verification, especially as pertaining to Iran, should be resolved only through the framework of the IAEA, and they encouraged Iran to cooperate fully with the IAEA.
The Final Document of the Ministerial Conference addressed various concerns relating to disarmament and nonproliferation and as such reaffirmed longstanding NAM positions. The ministers reaffirmed their commitment to nuclear disarmament, expressing dismay at the slow rate of disarmament and voicing concerns about the US Nuclear Posture Review and the NATO Alliance Strategic Concept, which they felt contravened the security assurances given by the NWS. They called for an international conference to focus on nuclear dangers, ultimately resulting in resolutions for a phased disarmament program.
The Ministers also expressed disappointment at the inability of the 2005 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) to agree on substantive recommendations. They called on the nuclear-weapon states (NWS) to implement commitments not to use nuclear weapons against non-NWS party to the NPT and nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZ). Nevertheless, they reaffirmed the right of developing countries to engage in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, stressing the responsibility of developed countries to aid developing countries in their quest to utilize nuclear energy. On that note, they demanded the accession of Israel to the NPT as a step to establishing a NWFZ in the Middle East.
Furthermore, the ministers expressed concern over the development and deployment of anti-ballistic missiles defense systems that they warned could lead to an arms race and an increase in the number of nuclear weapons worldwide.
The ministers emphasized their belief that multilateralism was the only method of addressing disarmament and international security issues, reaffirming their support for the UN Disarmament Commission and the Conference on Disarmament as multilateral tools for disarmament negotiations.
The importance of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention was reestablished and it was recognized that the convention should be strengthened through multilateral negotiations. The ministers thus committed to work for a successful outcome of the Sixth Review Conference to be held in Geneva, 20 November — 8 December. Furthermore, the ministers invited states who had not yet signed or ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention to do so speedily.
Finally, the ministers also addressed the probability of terrorists acquiring weapons of mass destruction, stressing that the most effective prevention tool was progress in disarmament and nonproliferation. Noting the adoption of resolutions 1540 and 1673 by the UN Security Council, the ministers recommended that the issue of non-state actors acquiring weapons of mass destruction should be dealt with multilaterally at the General Assembly.
2005: At the 2005 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) held in New York from 2-27 May, the Non-Aligned Movement represented its interests by submitting five working papers for discussion during the conference. Three working papers represented substantive issues to be discussed at Main Committees I, II, and III, respectively.
Working Paper 18 specifically addressed concern over the failure of some Nuclear Weapon States (NWS) to ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Working Paper 19 called for Israel's prompt accession to the NPT and the establishment of a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in the Middle East. Working Paper 20 requested a "comprehensive multilaterally negotiated instrument" to prohibit the attack on peaceful nuclear facilities,
2004: The Fourteenth Ministerial Conference convened from 17-19 August in Durban, South Africa. In the Final Document of the conference, the Ministers addressed a wide variety of topics, and reaffirmed NAM's positions regarding disarmament and international security and the relevant decisions taken at previous summits.
They expressed concerns regarding States' resorts to unilateralism and stressed that multilateralism "provided the only sustainable method of addressing disarmament and international security issues," welcoming UN General Assembly Resolution 58/44 on the "Promotion of Multilateralism in the Area of Disarmament and Nonproliferation."
The Ministers also expressed concerning about strategic defense policies that "set out rationales for the use of nuclear weapons," and specifically referred to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's "Alliance Strategic Concept." Regarding the Nuclear Posture Review of the U.S., they noted concerns that the provision for the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons against NNWS is inconsistent with stated negative security assurances, and that the development of new nuclear weapons is contrary to the commitments of the NWS in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
Furthermore, the document reiterated NAM positions on nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation, pointing out the slow progress of the former, and specifically a lack of progress by the NWS in taking steps towards eliminating their nuclear arsenals. They also reaffirmed the need for confidence-building measures as well as both global and regional approaches to disarmament.
The Ministers also addressed the central role of the Conference on Disarmament, and called for an international conference that would produce a phased program for eliminating all nuclear weapons.
Regarding anti-ballistic missiles, the Ministers noted concern about the abrogation of the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-ballistic Missiles and the possibility that the development of national missile defense systems could produce an arms race. The Final Document also addressed the importance of the CTBT and of nuclear-weapon-free-zones (NWFZ), and supported the creation an additional NWFZ in the Middle East.
The Ministers expressed disappointment regarding the failure of the 2003 NPT PrepCom for the 2005 Review Conference to agree on an agenda and recommendations, noting the need for the NWS to fulfill their commitments with regard to the Treaty, while reaffirming States' inalienable right to use energy peacefully. They also reaffirmed the importance of adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and welcomed recent ratifications of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), encouraging additional States to ratify it as well.
In addition, the Final Document addressed NAM's role in the International Atomic Energy Agency, stressing the importance of members supporting and strengthening its statute. The Ministers also reaffirmed the need to strengthen the safety and protection of radioactive materials, suggested the establishment of an international regime for the physical protection of radioactive materials, and welcomed UNGA Resolution 58/40 on the Prohibition of the Dumping of Radioactive Wastes.
In addressing issues related to small arms and light weapons, the Ministers expressed concern regarding their illicit transfer and manufacture, and encouraged additional States to become party to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction. Those States parties to the Convention on Certain Chemical Weapons urged additional States to become party to it, and encouraged the reduction of States' military expenditures.
Finally, the Ministers addressed the possibility of terrorists acquiring weapons of mass destruction, welcoming UNGA Resolution 58/48 and noted UN Security Council 1540 on the subject, and encouraged individual States to take national measures to prevent this.
2003: The Thirteenth NAM Summit Conference of Heads of State or Government convened in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 20-25 February. At the conference, Heads of State or Government adopted a Final Document that addressed a number of key issues of disarmament and international security.
The Heads of State or Government first addressed their great concern at the growing number of unilateral actions and unilaterally imposed prescriptions. The conference reiterated its strong commitment to multilateralism in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
Consistent with statements in previous Summit final documents, the Heads of State or Government expressed their deep concern over the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's "Alliance Strategic Concept," which allows for the maintenance and deployment of U.S. nuclear weapons from locations within NATO member countries. NAM states that this concept promotes nuclear deterrence and opens the scope for possible use or threat of use of force by NATO.
Additionally, the Final Document covered a variety of topics including NAM's dedication to disarmament and organizations such as the Conference on Disarmament. The Heads of State or Government issued a call for an international conference with the objective to reach an agreement on the elimination of nuclear weapons.
The Heads of State of Government also expressed their support of the CTBT and encouraged its universal adoption. The Summit also discussed the continued establishment of NWFZs, showing specific interest in a NWFZ in the Middle East.
The safe control and reduction of chemical and biological weapons was an important topic of the Summit. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the increasing number of ratifications of the CWC as well as underlined the urgency of resolving the unresolved issues in the framework of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).
The Heads of State or Government remain deeply concerned over the illicit transfer, manufacture, and circulation of small arms and light weapons. The presence of landmines as a residue of WWII also poses a serious concern to NAM, especially considering their specific obstruction of the development plans of some NAM members.
2002: In 2002, the working group on disarmament met under the coordination of Indonesia to prepare and consolidate NAM's positions for the 57th session of the UN General Assembly. In addition, it began preparing several resolutions, including one regarding the promotion of multilateralism in disarmament and nonproliferation efforts.
In a report on the activities of NAM to the Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation in April 2002, the chair noted that the preceding period had presented major challenges to the NAM Working Group on Disarmament, namely to do a "lack of political will to implement Treaty obligations by States Parties and to engage in negotiations in good faith" and a "tendency to adopt a unilateralist approach on disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control issues."
The report added that NAM has expressed concern regarding these factors, and that it had introduced several disarmament-related resolutions in the UN General Assembly with the goal of continuing debate on these issues, consolidating gains made at individual arms control conferences, and providing practical solutions.
A NAM Ministerial Meeting convened in Cape Town, South Africa from 12-14 December.
2001: A report of the chair on NAM activities released in November noted the high level of participation of NAM countries in the UN Conference in the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects in 2001, which adopted a Program of Action on the issue.
2000: A report of the chair regarding NAM activities at the Ministerial Meeting in New York in September addressed the working group on disarmament, noting that several NAM positions had been included in the outcome of the 2000 NPT Review Conference.
At the Thirteenth NAM Ministerial Conference held from 7-9 April in Cartagena, Colombia, a report on the activities of NAM described the Movement's activities since the 1998 Summit.
Regarding the working group on disarmament, the report noted that members had promoted NAM positions regarding several disarmament issues at the UN in New York and drafted several First Committee resolutions which were to be adopted during the 53rd and 54th sessions of the General Assembly. In addition, they submitted a working paper to the second PrepCom of the 2000 NPT Review Conference addressing preparation for the conference, and contributed to the decision of the PrepCom to allocate time for discussions on proposals regarding nuclear disarmament and on the Middle East.
NAM States parties to the NPT also proposed the establishment of subsidiary bodies to Main Committees I and II of the Review Conference so that they may address these issues. Finally, the Working Group prepared a NAM statement for the first PrepCom for the 2001 UN Conference on Illicit Traffic in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects regarding organizational issues, particularly the possibility of holding future conferences in locations that would afford greater participation to parties with limited representation.
The Final Document of the Ministerial Conference also extensively addressed disarmament and nonproliferation issues. The Ministers noted concern regarding NATO's 1999 "Alliance Strategic Concept" and use of a nuclear deterrent policy, as well as about the development of anti-ballistic missile defense systems and of military technologies capable of being deployed in outer space. They also addressed the importance of achieving universal adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and called for efforts towards concluding a universal, binding legal instrument regarding negative security assurances to NNWS.
They supported the existence of nuclear-weapon-free zones, expressed concern regarding the use of export controls to restrict the material for peaceful purposes available to developing countries, and urged relevant States to ratify the Chemical Weapons Convention. Regarding the BWC, leaders noted their conviction that any use of biological agents or toxins violates the Convention and expressed hope that progress continues in negotiating a protocol to strengthen it.
Finally, the document also addressed issues relating to the dangers posed by the illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons and by anti-personnel landmines (APLs), and encouraged more States to become party to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.
1999: The chair's report on NAM activities since the Twelfth Summit noted that during the 53rd regular session of the UN General Assembly, the NAM working group on disarmament prepared several draft resolutions submitted by South Africa, including "Measures to uphold the authority of the 1925 Geneva Protocol," "UN Regional Centers for Peace and Disarmament," "Observance of environmental norms in the drafting and implementation of agreements on disarmament and arms control," and "Relationship between disarmament and development."
NAM members also participated in the third PrepCom session of the 2000 NPT Review Conference and submitted a working paper regarding NAM's positions on NPT-related issues and making recommendations about the upcoming NPT Review Conference.
1998: At the Twelfth Summit, which convened in Durban, South Africa from 2-3 September, Heads of State or Government adopted a Final Document that addressed a number of issues, including disarmament and international security.
As in past documents, they stressed their belief in the lack of justification for maintaining nuclear arsenals or policies of nuclear deterrence, and called for a conference to develop a phased program for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. Specifically, they identified "the failure of the NWS to demonstrate a genuine commitment with regard to complete nuclear disarmament" and to provide negative security assurances. They also noted the importance of universal adherence to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and of the beginning of negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament on an agreement regarding fissile materials.
The Heads of State also extensively addressed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and the Chemical Weapons Convention, stressing the importance of States' adherence to their terms. They reiterated past statements on the threats posed by the illicit transfer and circulation of small arms and light weapons,, particularly noting the "significant imbalance" in the production and trade of conventional weapons between industrialized and non-aligned countries, and urging States to take relevant action.
They also emphasized the positive role of nuclear-weapon-free zones and advocated the creation of a Middle Eastern NWFZ, calling on Israel to accede to the NPT. In addition, they welcomed Egyptian President Mubarak's advocacy of achieving a world free of WMD and of convening an international conference to address this issue, and again reiterated their belief that global and regional disarmament efforts must be taken in concert with one another.
1997: The Twelfth Ministerial Conference convened from 4-8 April in New Delhi, India.
Regarding disarmament and international security issues, the Ministers noted that there is no justification for nuclear arsenals or policies based on nuclear deterrence now that the Cold War has ended, and called for a series of measures to form part of a program for nuclear disarmament. They also welcomed the International Court of Justice advisory opinion regarding States' obligation to pursue negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament, and noted NAM countries' work towards developing an Action Plan for nuclear disarmament.
During the conference, the Ministers made several recommendations, including calling on the Conference on Disarmament to establish an ad hoc committee to negotiate a phased program to eliminate nuclear weapons and a Nuclear Weapons Convention and urging the NWS to commit to legally binding negative security assurances. They also noted satisfaction regarding the NAM working group on disarmament.
Regarding the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Ministers noted that the fact that the two declared chemical weapons possessors have not yet ratified it "jeopardizes both the necessary universal and disarmament character of the Convention." They encouraged the strengthening of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.
In addition, the Ministers emphasized the importance of pursuing regional and global disarmament efforts simultaneously, and encouraged the creation of more nuclear-weapon-free zones, particularly in the Middle East. Addressing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, the Ministers of States parties urged countries to fulfill their commitments, especially with regard to Article VI of the Treaty.
They also encouraged a commitment to the terms of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which opened for signature in 1996. Regarding small arms and light weapons, the Ministers urged States to take steps to prevent their illicit transfer and proliferation. In addition, they welcomed bans and restrictions on APLs.
1995: The Eleventh Summit Conference convened in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia from 18-20 October.
The Final Document of the conference addressed nuclear issues, noting that "even when the specter of a nuclear holocaust seems more remote than in the recent past...great powers continue to endanger the future of human kind through the unjustified stockpiling and development of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction..." They also expressed concern regarding the illicit trade and traffic of weapons, and urged the international community to undertake a "vigorous and concerted action" to help curb small arms traffic.
The Final Document also contained a separate section on Disarmament and International Security, in which the Heads of State or Government extensively addressed nonproliferation issues. Among other things, it called for a phased program for the elimination of nuclear weapons, encouraged the creation of new nuclear-weapon-free zones, and expressed concern regarding the "growing restraint being placed on access to material, equipment and technology for peaceful uses of nuclear energy by the developed countries through the imposition of ad-hoc export control regimes."
Furthermore, the leaders commended South Africa's decision to dismantle its nuclear weapons program and condemned all types of nuclear testing, emphasizing the importance of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. They also addressed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, strongly and repeatedly urging the NWS to comply with their obligations. They also called for the negotiation of an international convention to prohibit the use or threat of nuclear weapons in any situation.
Regarding the IAEA, the Heads of State or Government noted their belief that Article VI of the IAEA Statute should be amended in order to expand the size and composition of the governing council in order to make it more representative and more efficient. They also addressed the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, expressing concern over the apparent lack of progress of the Preparatory Commission.
Regarding the Biological Weapons Convention, they noted the importance of not restricting the use and transfer of materials for peaceful purposes. They also briefly addressed conventional weapons issues and the need for confidence-building and transparency measures, and called for the expansion of the Conference on Disarmament's membership.
1994: The Eleventh Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Countries was held in Cairo, Egypt, from 31 May to 3 June 1994. At the conference, the Heads of State or Government adopted the guiding principles regarding peacekeeping operations.
1992: The Tenth Summit Conference was held in Jakarta, Indonesia from 1-7 September. Due to the conclusion of the Cold War, the focus of the conference shifted from that of previous meetings.
1991: The Tenth Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Countries opened in Ghana on 4 September. The collapse of the Soviet Union and approaching end of the Cold War necessitated a reconsideration of NAM priorities and purpose. Members discussed "new priority questions" such as human rights, drug trafficking, the environment, and political pluralism.
Also on the agenda was the discussion of a current initiative to preserve the "unity, integrity and political sovereignty" of Yugoslavia. The threat of civil war and dissolution of the country was seen as symbolic of the general plight of members of the Non-Aligned Movement.
1989: The Ninth Summit Conference took place in Belgrade from 4-7 September.
1988: The Ministerial Conference of Non-Aligned Countries took place in Cyprus from 7- 11 September. Among the topics discussed was the adoption of the Nicosia Declaration. The document stated that the movement would update its strategy so that it may be ready to play a more active and constructive role in solving regional and global problems in the improved climate of international relations characterized by the recent detente between the United States and the Soviet Union
1986: The Eighth Summit Conference was held in Harare from 1-6 September.
1983: The Seventh Summit Conference convened in New Delhi, India from 7-12 March.
1979: The Sixth Summit Conference was held in Havana from 3-9 September.
1976: The Fifth Summit Conference took place in Colombo from 16-19 August.
1975: The Ministerial Conference of Non-Aligned Countries occurred in Lima on August 25 — 30, 1975.
1973: NAM leaders met for the Fourth Summit Conference in Algiers from 5-9 September.
1970: From 8-10 September, NAM leaders attended the Third Summit Conference in Lusaka.
1964: The Second Summit Conference took place in Cairo from 5-10 October. Forty-seven countries were represented, and expressed condemnation of Western colonialism and foreign military installations. Following the Second Conference, NAM's focus shifted from political issues to global economic issues.
1961: The First Summit Conference of Non-Aligned Heads of State convened in Belgrade from 1-6 September. Twenty-five countries were represented. Yugoslav President Tito played a major role in the conference.
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This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents.