Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction ("10 Plus 10 Over 10 Program")
Signed: 27 June 2002
Member States: The seven major industrial countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan the United Kingdom, and the United States, also known as the G-7, plus Russia. The Global Partnership now also includes as donor participants non-G8 States, including Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Korea, Sweden, and Switzerland., The G8 duty presidencies have begun to invite a number of emerging countries to G8 sessions. This usually includes the G5, which is made up of Brazil, the People's Republic of China, India, Mexico, and South Africa.
Background: On 27 June 2002, during the 2002 Summit, the G8 (the seven major industrial countries plus Russia) issued a statement outlining a new initiative, entitled the "Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction." It committed the G-7 to raising up to $20 billion over the next 10 years to fund nonproliferation projects, principally in Russia but also in other nations. The so-called "10 plus 10 over 10" initiative, agreed to at the G8 summit in Kananaskis, Canada, calls for the United States to contribute $10 billion, and the other original G-7 nations a combined $10 billion to help Russia and other nations destroy their stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
At the June 2002 Summit, G8 leaders adopted a set of "six principles" that outlined broad goals for the initiative and "nine guidelines" for new projects. Under these guidelines, the Global Partnership was given the ability to initiate bilateral and multilateral projects and enhance existing ones, such as those under the long-standing U.S. Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. The G8 decided to establish a senior-level mechanism to coordinate Global Partnership activities, including monitoring progress and identifying priorities. Russian President Putin agreed to provide contributing States the same privileges it accords the United States, namely access to sites, tax exemptions, and liability protection.
Months after the Summit, however, there was slow progress in collecting funding commitments from countries and still no coordinating mechanism or clear plan for moving forward.
2015: On 9 February, the G7 leaders and the Foreign Affairs Council of the EU adopted additional restrictive measures and sanctions against Russia.
On 15 April, the G7 foreign ministers met in Lübeck, Germany. During the meeting, the ministers reaffirmed their support to the three pillars of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The ministers welcomed the political understanding on key parameters of an international agreement regarding Iran’s nuclear program and supported any continuation of the efforts. The group, furthermore, condemned North Korea’s continued development of its nuclear and ballistic missile programs and reiterated its condemnation of Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea, reaffirming the policy of non-recognition and the sanctions against those involved.
On 7-8 June, the G7 Summit was held in Schloss Elmau, Germany. The leaders of the G7 issued a declaration. In the declaration, the leaders addressed the report of the G7 Nuclear Safety and Security Group and other nonproliferation issues, including the importance of Arms Trade Treaty, the ongoing Iran nuclear deal negotiations, and North Korea nuclear issue.
2014: On 1 January, Russian President Vladimir Putin delivered a statement regarding the upcoming G8 meeting. The motto of Russia’s presidency of the G8 summit is: Risk Management for Sustainable Growth in a Safe World.
On 24 March, on the sidelines of the Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, Netherlands, the leaders of the G-7 met for the first time since the Crimea region conflict in Ukraine had begun. Collectively they made the decision to oust Russia from the Group of 8 as a punitive measure for its annexation of Crimea. The G-7 countries decided not to impose economic sanctions at the time, but threatened tougher sanctions if Putin’s government continued to pursue an aggressive policy in the region. The G-7 countries announced that they would boycott the G8 meeting planned for 4-5 June in Sochi, instead gathering at a similar date in Brussels.
From 4-5 June, the G-7 leaders met in Brussels and issued a Summit Declaration. The G-7 leaders expressed deep concern over the tensions in the South China Sea dispute in East Asia, they emphasized international economic cooperation, and also stated their intention to promote peaceful nuclear energy. The leaders reaffirmed their commitment to a successful conclusion on the Iranian nuclear program talks, strongly condemned North Korea’s continued development of nuclear weaponry, and asserted their strict policy of non-recognition with respect to Crimea/Sevastapol, stating their readiness to “intensify targeted sanctions and to implement significant additional restrictive measures” against Russia.
On 5 June, U.S. President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron officially alerted Russia that it had one month to comply with the conditions set down unanimously by the G-7 leaders or it would face further sanctions. The three conditions that the G-7 developed were: Putin must recognize Petro Poroshenko’s election as the new president of Ukraine, stop arms from crossing the Ukrainian-Russian border, and cease support for pro-Russian separatist groups located in eastern Ukraine.
During the Summit in Brussels, the G-7 leaders also issued the Declaration on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament for 2014, in which they reaffirmed that preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their means of delivery are a top priority for the group.
In July, in response to the escalating situation between Ukraine and Russia, the G7 leaders and the EU decided to extend their sanctions against Russia, including, this time, against certain sectors of Russia’s economy.
In September, the US President Barack Obama expressed the willingness to join the EU in imposing tougher sanctions on Russia's financial, energy and defense sectors, after Moscow sent troops into eastern Ukraine in August.
In December, the G7 representative and the EU banned investments in Crimea, hoping to keep up pressure on Russia over its role in Ukraine.
2013: On 10-11 April, the G8 Foreign Ministers met in London. The ministers discussed many topics including the situation in Syria, the Arms Trade Treaty’s adoption, the threat of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, outer space security, and the establishment of a Middle East zone free of weapons of mass destruction, Iran, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The ministers expressed their concern about events occurring in Syria and support for the UN-led investigation into the alleged use of chemical weapons in Syria. The United Kingdom, United States, and France held separate talks with the Syrian National Coalition ahead of the G8 foreign ministers meeting, where they discussed how to best provide practical support to achieve a political solution to the ongoing conflict. The ministers also discussed the recent provocations made by the Democratic Republic of Korea, condemning the DPRK’s actions and pledging to take “further significant measures” if the country conducts another missile launch or nuclear test. The ministers supported strengthening the sanctions regime against the DPRK while urging the country to engage in multilateral talks regarding de-nuclearization.
On 17-18 June the G8 convened in Lough Erne, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The G8 issued a statement concerning the use of chemical weapons in Syria, calling on all parties to all access to the investigating team mandated by the UNSG. The ministers reaffirmed the priority of preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery as they pose a major threat to international peace and security. The G8 condemned both Iran’s and North Korea’s nuclear program, which continues to develop in violation of UNSC Resolutions, and called upon North Korea to meet its international obligations by completely abandoning its nuclear and ballistic missile programs. Lastly, the G8 reaffirmed the importance of worldwide nuclear safety.
2012: On 18-19 May, the G8 summit convened at Camp David, Maryland, USA. The G8 issued a report on Nuclear Safety and Security. The report focused on Nuclear Safety in the Aftermath of the Fukushima Accident, and on the IAEA Action Plan and the Enhancement of Safety and Security Framework. The G8 also called on Iran and North Korea to scale back on its nuclear weapons, encouraged Iran to comply with its obligations to the NPT treaty, and reaffirmed its commitment to nonproliferation and disarmament.
2011: In May, the G8 summit in Deauville, France renewed the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. The mandate that aims to prevent terrorists and rogue nations from obtaining weapons of mass destruction was set to expire in 2012, but due to its success the plan will be extended. The extension is needed to address the areas covered during the 2010 summit: securing nuclear and radiological materials, biosecurity, engagement of weapons scientists in the field of nonproliferation, and implementation of the U.S. Security Council Resolution 1540. The G8 leaders expressed their continued commitment to completing the “priority projects” in Russia, such as destroying the nation’s chemical weapons stockpile. In addition, expansion of the partnership was addressed by the members, but it was not mentioned which countries could be potential candidates. The G8 nations pledged to collect $20 billion over the next decade to eliminate threats presented by unconventional weapons, initially focusing on Russia and former Soviet Union states. Russia pledged to contribute $2 billion, the United States $10 billion, other G8 states will provide $7.5 billion, and the remaining $1.42 billion is expected to come from other nations and the European Union. However, the cost of extending the plan is unknown. According to the State Department, almost $19 billion has been assigned to date to projects inside the former Soviet Union. This includes contributions toward the disassembly of decommissioned Russian nuclear-powered submarines and engagements of scientist at the International Science and Technology Center in Moscow. However, this figure does not include projects done outside of the G8 program.
2010: In March, the G8 produced a compliance report that demonstrated the progress made by each G8 State towards commitments made during G8 summits. This report measures progress in various areas such as counter-terrorism, corruption, energy efficiency, education, climate change, and international aid. The 2009 L'Aquila G8 Summit Interim Compliance Report discusses progress made towards countering chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear terrorism (CBRN) through implementing technology to detect CBRN materials. Canada, France, Russia, the United States, and the European Union were rated as having provided financial and/or technical support to existing initiatives to deal with the threat of CRBN terrorism. Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom were rated as having only partially provided financial and/or technical support to existing initiatives to deal with the threat of CRBN terrorism.
On 30 March, the G8 foreign ministers met in Gatineau, Canada to discuss current security issues. Following the meeting, the foreign ministers released a statement titled "G8 Statement on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Disarmament, and Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy." In this statement they reaffirmed support for the NPT and the importance of the 2010 NPT Review Conference while committing to have their delegations led at a high level. They also reaffirmed their dedication to permanently banning all nuclear weapon test explosions through the "swift" entry into force of the CTBT. Ministers also called for a ban on the production of fissile material for use in nuclear weapons through immediate commencement of negotiations on a FMCT at the Conference on Disarmament. Support was also voiced for the efforts of the IAEA to broaden access to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including the development of multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle such as assurance of fuel supply and fuel services. Concerning Iran, the ministers reiterated their serious concerns about the proliferation risks posed by Iran's nuclear program and underscored the importance of Iran's full and immediate compliance with its international obligations. Ministers also called on the DPRK to return to the Six-Party Talks and fulfill commitments through the complete and verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
From 25-26 June, the annual G8 Summit was held in the Muskoka region of Canada. At the conclusion of the meeting, the "Report on the G-8 Global Partnership 2010" was released. The report informed that progress was made in destroying chemical weapons, including that as of December 2009, 45% of Russia's chemical weapons stockpile had been destroyed. It was announced that Russian submarine dismantlement work will be completed by 2012. The U.S. and Russian Presidents also highlighted that on April 13, the United States and Russia signed a Protocol amending the 2000 Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement in which each country committed to dispose 34 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. Through the Global Partnership, additional radiation detection equipment will be placed throughout Russia and Ukraine. G8 members also reported progress made through the Global Partnership in addressing the human dimension of proliferation by funding projects to engage former WMD scientists or scientists with WMD-related expertise in the development of sustainable civilian research and other activities. It was also made clear that G8 leaders believe that expansion of the membership of the Global Partnership as a means to facilitate global programming remains a priority.
However, no decision to extend the Global Partnership after it expires in July 2012 have been made. Instead, the report called on G8 senoir experts to assess the program's success to date "as a point of departure for developing options for programming and financing beyond 2012."
2009: On 22 January 2009, Canada announced that it would contribute $10 million towards the G8 Global Partnership. On 26 June 2009, at a G8 meeting in Italy, Canada announced an additional $180 million contribution.
On 16-17 April, in conjunction with Italy's role as President of the G8, the Italian Foreign Ministry hosted a conference in Rome on "Overcoming Nuclear Dangers." More than 70 current and former government officials from over 20 countries attended. At the end of the conference, Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini, Mikhail Gorbachev, and George Shultz issued a joint statement calling for nations to join the "movement towards a nuclear weapon-free world."
On 18-20 May 2009, the 1st Annual Conference of the Biosafety Association for Central Asia and the Caucasus took place in Almaty, Kazakhstan. This conference was funded and organized through the Global Partnership. During the meeting biosafety risk assessments, proliferation concerns, and methods for reducing the spread of disease were discussed.
The 2009 G8 Summit took place from 8-10 July, in L'Alquila, Italy. Members addressed the economic crisis, poverty, climate change, and other international issues. The 25 May 2009 DPRK nuclear test was strongly condemned and members urged the DPRK to resume the Six Party talks as early as possible. Members also stressed their commitments to find a diplomatic solution to Iran's continued failure to meet its international obligations with regard to its nuclear program.
During the Summit, G8 members issued the "L'Aquila Statement on Non-Proliferation." This statement supported those of previous Summit statements by reiterating that WMD proliferation and their means of delivery continue to represent a global challenge and pose a major threat to international security. It reaffirmed that the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) remained the cornerstone of the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Members called upon all States to contribute to the NPT review process in a constructive and balanced manner. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards were recognized as an essential tool for the effective implementation of the NPT and its nonproliferation objectives. Members committed to work towards adopting the Additional Protocol as an essential standard in the field of nuclear supply arrangements.
The L'Aquila Statement also welcomed actions taken in the United States toward ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The CTBT was identified as one of the principal instruments of the international security architecture and a key measure of nonproliferation and disarmament. Efforts to negotiate the Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) in the Conference on Disarmament received praised, as did the efforts to negotiate a replacement for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) by Russia and the United States.
The L'Aquila statement also called upon all States to fully implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 on preventing non-State actors from obtaining WMD. Members also pledged their support for the Proliferation Security Initiative, Chemical Weapons Convention, and Biological Weapons Convention. Efforts made by the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Financial Action Task Force, and the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation were also praised. Members called upon all States that have not yet subscribed to the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation to do so without delay.
During the Summit, members also reaffirmed their commitment to improve nuclear safety. In this regard, members acknowledged progress achieved since the last G8 Summit in ongoing projects at the Chernobyl site, and reasserted their commitment to undertake joint efforts with Ukraine to work towards converting the site to a stable and environmentally safe condition.
The L'Aquila statement reported that the Global Partnership had become a successful large-scale initiative for the enhancement of international security. It was also announced that the option of expanding the Global Partnership to include other States is being discussed. If successful, the expansion would likely include CIS countries.
During the Summit, G8 members also agreed to adopt new rules for sensitive nuclear exports. These rules originate from a document that was drafted by the NSG in 2008 and provide specific criteria that NNWS must fulfill before being eligible to receive exports related to uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing. One of the main requirements to receive exports is that the state must be party to the NPT. Each G8 member committed "to implement this text on a national basis in the next year."
The Global Partnership undertook the major task of assisting Russia in transporting two Victory Class nuclear submarines from Kamchatka Krai to Promorsky Krai for dismantlement on 26 August 2009. This project involved experts from Canada, the Netherlands, Russia, and the United States.
2008: The 2008 G8 summit, chaired by the Government of Japan, took place from 7-9 July in Hokkaido. One of the four major themes was "political issues including nuclear nonproliferation."
Paragraphs 57-66 of the summit declaration outline G8 commitments to preventing WMD proliferation, which include support for the Six-Party process towards the verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula; the efforts to resolve through negotiation the risks posed by Iran's nuclear program; full commitment to all three pillars of the NPT; negotiation of a fissile material cut-off treaty in the Conference on Disarmament; and implementation of the BTWC, the CWC, the Hague Code of Conduct, UN Security Council Resolution 1540, and the IAEA additional protocol. The declaration called for a continuing moratorium on nuclear weapon test explosions but did not mention the CTBT.
The report (and annex) on the G8 Global Partnership noted progress that had been made in chemical weapons destruction, the dismantlement of nuclear submarines, the disposition of fissile material, the employment of former weapons scientists, and the physical protection of nuclear materials. Partners reaffirmed their commitment to cooperating in other spheres in accordance with the 2002 Kananaskis Statement. The report noted U.S.-Russian cooperation on the construction of power plants that will enable the permanent closure of the three remaining plutonium production reactors in Russia. Six other nations have also committed funds for this project.
2007: The 2007 G8 summit, hosted by German Chancellor Angela Merkel in the Baltic seaside resort town of Heiligendamm, convened from 6-8 June. Members discussed a range of issues under three overarching themes: Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy, Growth and Responsibility in Africa, and Foreign Policy and Security Issues.
The Statement on Nonproliferation reaffirmed the commitment of members to the multilateral treaty system governing nonproliferation, while emphasizing the key role of the United Nations Security Council in addressing the challenges of proliferation. Members also underlined the importance of compliance with the multilateral treaty system, while recognizing the necessity of strengthening verification and enforcement. In this regard, members committed to continue efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with the Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard to ensure the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
In order to reduce the risks associated with the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology, G8 members stressed the importance of developing and implementing mechanisms of multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle but reiterated that participation in such a mechanism should be on a voluntary basis without precluding any state from purchasing nuclear fuel cycle services commercially.
In reference to regional proliferation challenges, Members expressed their commitment to seek solutions through diplomatic means. In the case of Iran, G8 countries urged Iran to suspend its enrichment-related and reprocessing activities while deploring its refusal to meet its obligations under relevant UNSC resolutions. Members also expressed willingness to pursue further measures should Iran continue a course of noncompliance. Regarding the Korean Peninsula, Members expressed support for the Six Party Talks and swift implementation of actions agreed on 13 February 2007 towards implementation of the Joint Statement of 19 September 2005. North Korea's nuclear explosion of 9 October 2006 was deemed a clear threat to international peace and security while at the same time members called upon North Korea to refrain from conducting any further nuclear tests.
G8 members reaffirmed their commitment to the Global Partnership Against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction as originally formulated at the 2002 Kananaskis G8 summit. Both a midterm review and a report on recent activities were produced at the 2007 summit. Priorities of the Global Partnership continued to be: destruction of chemical weapons, dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposition of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists, Members noted significant progress in all activities, while welcoming the increased financial contribution of Russia to the Partnership since 2002. In addition to the work currently conducted in Russia, a number of areas in which Global Partnership partners could engage in the future were discussed. Although not exhaustive, they include the implementation and universalization of the CPPNM, Full Scope Safeguards, the Additional Protocol, UNSCR 1540, the Convention on the Suppression of Nuclear Terrorism and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism.
The Nuclear Safety and Security Group (NSSG), created at the 2002 Kananaskis Summit with a view to providing technical and strategic policy advice to leaders of G8 countries on nuclear safety and radiation protection issues, met and discussed nuclear safety improvement programs for operating nuclear power plants in Armenia and the Ukraine. The group reaffirmed commitments regarding the improvement of safety conditions of Chernobyl's damaged reactor unit site and making available safe and reliable facilities for the decommissioning of the shut down reactors units.
The G8 concluded its 2007 summit by welcoming the offer of the prime minister of Japan to host the next summit in Hokkaido, Japan in July 2008.
2006: Russian President Vladimir Putin hosted the 2006 G8 Summit from 15 — 17 July 2006 at the Constantine Palace in Strelnya, near St. Petersburg. It was the first time Russia assumed the presidency of the G8. The primary themes of the 2006 summit were energy security, education and fighting infectious diseases.
The G8 members adopted a 'Package of Documents' at the summit, including a 'Statement on Non-Proliferation' that noted the proliferation of WMD was the 'pre-eminent threat to international peace and security.' The Statement also noted that the G8 countries were determined to fulfill all of their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments held under relevant international treaties and resolutions, including the NPT, CWC, BTWC, UNSCR 1540 and IAEA safeguards and that they urge all states to accede and implement these treaties.
The Members re-affirmed the inalienable right to peaceful nuclear energy but stressed that alternatives must be sought to ensure access to nuclear fuel-related services to states as an alternative to pursuing enrichment and reprocessing activities. The G8 noted with appreciation the Russian initiative towards multinational fuel centers and the US initiative towards a Global Nuclear Energy Partnership.
The G8 expressed "serious" concern over Iran's nuclear program and urged Iran to accept the multilateral proposals set forth in June 2006 for a cooperative peaceful nuclear program. The G8 expressed support for referring Iran to the Security Council if it fails to cooperate further. "Deep concern" was also expressed over the DPRK's nuclear program, with particular reference and condemnation made of the multiple missile test launches carried out on 5 July 2006. The G8 reaffirmed its full support for the September 19, 2005 Joint Statement and the Six-Party Talks and urged the DPRK to return to the talks and the NPT, and abandon its nuclear weapons program.
The G8 noted it was 'looking forward' to reinforcing its relationship with India and encouraged India to take further steps towards integration into the mainstream of strengthening the nonproliferation regime, so as to facilitate a more forthcoming approach towards nuclear cooperation to address its energy requirements, in a manner that enhances and reinforces the global non-proliferation regime. The G8 also commended Libya's abandonment of WMDs and highlighted the strategic benefits of cooperating with the will of the international community.
The G8 issued a Report on the G8 Global Partnership that re-affirmed its commitment to the full implementation of all G8 Global Partnership Program objectives and left open the possibility of expansion of the Partnership to other recipient countries and donor states. The G8 remains committed to raising $20 billion by 2012 for the Global Partnership, mainly for projects in Russia. The report noted the practical progress made by Global Partnership initiatives in Russia, including the destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantlement of 61 nuclear submarines, the funding of 1,400 research projects employing some 17,000 Russian nuclear scientists and the disposition of 34 tons of plutonium.
President's Bush and Putin announced at the conference the launch of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. Intended to enhance cooperation between states in combating the threat of nuclear terrorism, the Initiative intends to improve accounting, control, and physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive substances, as well as security of nuclear facilities and further tackle illicit trafficking of fissile material, among other measures. The United States and Russia have invited initial partner nations to attend a preliminary meeting to elaborate and endorse a Statement of Principles for this Initiative. The United States and Russia have also invited the IAEA to serve as an observer. The International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is intended to serve as the primary, although not the exclusive, legal basis for the work of the Initiative.
On the eve of the 2006 G8 Summit, the Strengthening the Global Partnership (SGP) announced the publication of its newest consortium report, "Assessing the G8 Global Partnership: From Kananaskis to St. Petersburg" and an updated Global Partnership Scorecard.
These reports examined the progress made to date by the G8 Global Partnership. The reports note that in the four years of its existence, the G8 Partnership countries have pledged approximately $17.5 billion to this work, but that it has not received the sustained attention and effort needed to reduce these dangers. According to the assessment report, the partnership "has not yet reached its financial goal of $20 billion in pledges, and so far, only a small portion of pledges have been turned into projects."
The report also notes that while the G8 leaders have given important rhetorical priority to the work of securing WMD stocks, progress to date does not yet reflect the "necessary urgency" of the threat of WMD terrorism. The report gives recommendations for how the Global Partnership countries can move more quickly to ensure that funds are reducing the most urgent threats of securing nuclear and biological materials.
2005: British Prime Minister Tony Blair hosted the 2005 G8 Summit 6-8 July in Gleneagles, Scotland. The United Kingdom assumed the presidency of the G8 from the United States at the beginning of this year. Major topics addressed at this year's summit included the progress of the Global Partnership and other established nonproliferation objectives.
G8 members addressed with particular concern the threat of proliferation posed by Iran and North Korea. The leaders expressed their support for negotiation efforts with Iran and stressed the need for North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons program and return to the NPT.
The G8 Global Partnership Annual Report discussed ongoing and upcoming projects taking place in Russia, noting the developing efforts at increasing co-ordination between participating donors to maximize the use of resources. The partnership also continues to work toward building an international framework to handle efficiently the disposition of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists.
Also addressed were the recent addition of Ukraine to the partnership and the importance of expanding membership to additional former Soviet Union states.
Members emphasized the importance of reinforcing and universalizing nonproliferation by increasing membership to treaties and organizations such as the NPT, the International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, as well as the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (SUA). Members also stressed the importance of the IAEA Additional Protocol and its role as the new standard in the field of nuclear supply arrangements.
Leaders also discussed the progress on the Secure and Facilitated International Travel Initiative (SAFTI) and the Counter-Terrorism Action Group (CTAG). Members reiterated their dedication to improving security through multilateral cooperation through SAFTI. Regarding CTAG, members discussed shifting the focus from Africa and the Middle East to South East Asia.
2004: U.S. President George W. Bush hosted the 2004 Summit of the G8 on 8-10 June in Sea Island, Georgia, after the United States assumed the presidency of the G8 from France at the beginning of the year. Among the major topics addressed by the Summit were the status and progress of the Global Partnership and of nonproliferation objectives set out at the previous summits at Kananaskis and Evian, held in 2002 and 2003, respectively.
G8 members announced an Action Plan on Nonproliferation that addressed eight major subjects: nuclear nonproliferation, the Proliferation Security Initiative, the status of the Global Partnership Against Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, nonproliferation challenges, defense against bioterrorism, chemical weapons proliferation, implementation of the Evian initiative on radioactive source security, and nuclear safety and security.
Regarding nuclear nonproliferation, G8 members affirmed their desire for ratification of and universal compliance with the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Additional Protocol on safeguards and committed to amend Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines by the end of 2005. They committed to strengthening the IAEA by creating a Special Committee of the IAEA Board of Governors to focus on safeguards and verification. They also agreed to refrain, for a year, from initiating new uranium enrichment reprocessing technology transfers to additional States and to attempt to create permanent controls in this area prior to the 2005 Summit. In addition, the G8 called on States to put into practice United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which urges that they refrain from supporting attempts by non-State actors to acquire, use or transfer nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and develop domestic controls to prevent proliferation, and to act cooperatively and multilaterally in doing so.
Also in the Action Plan, G8 members reaffirmed their support, and acknowledged widening international support, for the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) and the Statement of Interdiction Principles for the trafficking of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems. They discussed work done by the Global Partnership in Russia in 2004, reiterated its $20 billion funding goal, and welcomed Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, the Republic of Korea, and New Zealand (which were invited to join the Global Partnership at a meeting of the Global Partnership Working Group in London in March) as new donors. G8 members also discussed the possibility of Ukraine's participation, as well as the inclusion of new recipient countries in the future.
Regional nonproliferation challenges addressed in the Action Plan and at the Summit included the DPRK's withdrawal from the NPT, Iran's pursuit of nuclear weapons, and Libya's abandonment of its weapons of mass destruction program and adherence to the NPT. The G8 urged all States not party to the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention to join as soon as possible. Members also noted progress toward the goal, articulated at the 2003 Evian Summit, of strengthening controls surrounding radioactive sources to prevent their illicit acquisition, and asked for IAEA approval of guidance for these controls. Finally, in addressing nuclear safety issues, the Action Plan encouraged international contributions towards funding for a confinement structure at Chernobyl, and for Ukraine's cooperation in the project.
In recognition of the continuing threat posed by terrorist attacks, G8 leaders adopted the Secure and Facilitated International Travel Initiative (SAFTI), which includes actions designed to increase security for travelers. It includes widening a plan for the control of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems devised at the Evian Summit, as well as changing the standards, procedures, and information-exchange processes involved in the transport of cargo and in human travel.
The Global Partnership Annual Report, issued in June, stated that the Global Partnership Working Group will continue its commitment to the relevant aspects of the Action Plan on Nonproliferation, focusing on moving forward with new and current projects, reviewing existing implementation guidelines, and adding both new donor and recipient states.
2003: On 1-3 June, the 2003 Summit of the G8 commenced in Evian, France. Chaired by Prime Minister of Canada Jean Chretien, the Summit addressed several issues, including the importance of a strong, multilateral approach to issues of global concern and the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Under the category of "Improving Security," the Summit discussed five primary topics: nonproliferation, terrorism, transport security and control of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (Manpads), the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, and small arms. Prime Minister Chretien expressed satisfaction with the progress the Summit had made in terms of steps taken to promote peace and security.
The Summit adopted a statement on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. It endorsed an Action Plan on the prevention of radiological terrorism and the securing of radioactive sources. It also adopted an Action Plan on capacity building against terrorism and created a Counter-Terrorism Action Group (CTAG), in support of the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee (CT), in order to combat terrorist groups world-wide. One suggested method of achieving this goal was to "choke off the flow of financing that supports terrorism" by calling on Finance Ministers to evaluate progress and identify next steps. Ministers were also encouraged to initiate dialogue with counterparts in other countries, including those whose financial institutions may serve as conduits for such financing.
The implementation of measures to reduce further risks of terrorist action against mass transportation was also addressed at the Summit. New initiatives concerning sea and air transport security were agreed upon as were actions to prevent the use of Manpads against civil aviation.
Members of the Summit reaffirmed their 2002 Kananaskis commitments to prevent terrorists, or those that harbor them, from acquiring weapons of mass destruction. They reviewed the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction launched last year. A determined commitment was made to sustain and broaden the G8's efforts toward the following issues: reaching the Kananaskis commitment of raising up to US$20 billion over 10 years, otherwise known as the "10 plus 10 over 10" initiative; developing and initiating concrete and worthwhile projects; fully implementing the guidelines; and opening the initiative to new countries. To that end, the Summit members endorsed an Action Plan on the Global Partnership. With respect to small arms, Summit members welcomed the upcoming meeting of States on the illicit traffic of small arms to be held at the United Nations in New York in July of 2003.
Non-G8 States Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland were welcomed as new participants in the Global Partnership, making a collective contribution of about $200 million in 2003.
This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents.
The Partnership is a formal multilateral nonproliferation initiative created by the G-8 countries in 2002. G-8 countries fund and implement projects to prevent terrorists and other proliferators from acquiring WMDs.