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Country Spotlight

Canada does not have nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons or relevant delivery systems, and is a member in good standing of all relevant nonproliferation treaties and regimes. A significant producer and exporter of dual-use goods, particularly relating to civil nuclear applications, Canada also plays an active role in nonproliferation export control regimes.

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Region   North America

1984 Stopped hosting U.S. nuclear weapons on its territory

~9% Of the world’s uranium resources

7 Countries operate Canadian-built CANDU power reactors


  • Participated in NATO’s nuclear mission between 1963 and 1984
  • Promoter of peaceful nuclear energy since establishment of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in 1952
  • Produced much of the world’s supply of molybdenum-99 for medical diagnosis and cancer treatment until 2018


  • Conducted research on offensive and defensive biological warfare during World War II
  • Tested American chemical and biological weapons during the 1960s
  • Maintains the Canadian Safety and Security Program to research and develop defenses against biological weapons


  • Does not possess or develop ballistic missiles
  • Has not participated in U.S. ballistic missile defense, but reconsidering this position
  • In 2015, purchased missile defense technology similar to Israel’s Iron Dome


  • Participated in Allied chemical weapons research during World War II
  • Provided land for the United Kingdom to test its chemical weapons in the 1940s
  • Is a member of the Australia Group and maintains strict export controls on dual-use chemicals

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

NATO was founded in 1949 and has 32 Alliance Members. Its member countries are committed to sharing the risks and responsibilities as well as the benefits of collective security.

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Nuclear Suppliers Group

The NSG is a voluntary association of nuclear supplier countries that works to prevent nuclear proliferation by implementing guidelines for nuclear and nuclear-related exports.

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Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW)

The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) bans the use, possession, testing, and transfer of nuclear weapons under international law.

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