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Japan

The 1945 atomic bombings of Japan by the United States left an indelible impression on Japanese society. Japan does not possess any programs for the development of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), but it is the only non-nuclear weapon state in possession of a full nuclear fuel cycle and has advanced WMD-relevant industries.

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Region   East Asia and the Pacific

~700,000 Chemical weapons abandoned in China after WWII

3 Non-nuclear principles: Japan shall not manufacture, possess, nor base nuclear weapons

~6% Electricity from nuclear power

3rd Largest commercial chemical industry in the world


Nuclear

  • “Atomic Energy Basic Law” prohibits all non-peaceful nuclear activities
  • Only NPT non-nuclear weapons state in possession of full-scale nuclear fuel cycle facilities
  • Hibakusha, survivors of the 1945 nuclear attacks, have spearheaded strong nuclear disarmament movement

Japan Nuclear Overview


Biological

  • Extensive use of biological weapons during WWII, including widespread attacks on civilians and crops
  • Signed the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) in 1972 and ratified it in 1982
  • Member of the Australia Group and maintains comprehensive export controls


Missile

  • Does not have a ballistic missile development program
  • Member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and was involved in drafting the Hague Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC)
  • Deploys a multi-layer missile defense system consisting of both sea-based midcourse defense and ground-based terminal defense systems

Japan Missile Overview


Chemical

  • Used chemical weapons against Chinese troops and civilians during WWII
  • Working with China under the CWC to destroy more than 700,000 Japanese chemical weapons abandoned in Chinese territory

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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NPT

The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Biological Weapons Convention (BTWC)

The BTWC mandates the elimination of existing biological weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using biological and toxin weapons.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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Facilities

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Analysis

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