Libya Flag for Libya

Country Spotlight

In 2003, then Libyan dictator Col. Muammar Qadhafi renounced all of his regime’s WMD programs. WMD stockpiles were verifiably dismantled, and Libya began to explore peaceful nuclear energy. However, ongoing civil war and turmoil since the Arab Spring in 2011 has stalled these efforts and has led to regional stability and proliferation concerns.

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Region   Middle East and North Africa

6400 Barrels of yellowcake uranium reportedly stored at Sabha

24.7 Metric tons of sulfur mustard gas declared to OPCW in 2004

55,000 Pounds of WMD-related equipment airlifted to US in 2004


  • Purchased uranium enrichment technology and nuclear weapon design plans from the A.Q. Khan network
  • Dismantlement of nuclear program completed and verified in 2004
  • Plans to pursue nuclear energy have been stalled by conflict and civil war
  • 2.5 tons of yellowcake went missing and were recovered in southern Libya in March 2023

Libya Nuclear Overview


  • Attempted to procure foreign assistance for a biological weapons program in the 1990s
  • Despite attempts, reportedly failed to ever develop a biological weapons capability
  • Currently possesses no biological weapons capabilities

Libya Biological Overview


  • Received technical assistance from Iran, North Korea, China, India, and Russia
  • Renounced its MTCR-class missiles in 2004
  • Despite a UN arms embargo, countries such as the UAE are suspected of selling missiles to Libya

Libya Missile Overview


  • Possessed a moderate chemical weapons arsenal until 2004
  • Deployed chemical weapons in a conflict against Chad in 1987
  • Declared in 2014 that the destruction of its chemical weapons stockpiles was complete

Libya Chemical Overview

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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Pelindaba Treaty

The African Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (ANWFZ) Treaty of Pelindaba established the African continent as a Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zone.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)

The BTWC mandates the elimination of existing biological weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using biological and toxin weapons.

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Education Center

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