The Pakistan Ministry of Defense Production conducts the bulk of its research and development at the Defense Science and Technology Organization (DESTO). 1 The DESTO pursues scientific and technical research and development on weapons systems over a variety of disciplines, including aerodynamics, propulsion and propellants, and avionics.
After Pakistan’s 1998 nuclear tests, the Clinton Administration sanctioned DESTO for involvement in Pakistan’s nuclear and missile programs. However, the details of its alleged contributions to Pakistan’s ballistic missile programs remain classified. 2 President George W. Bush waived the sanctions on DESTO in 2001 to facilitate post-September 11 cooperation with Pakistan. 3
- Ballistic missile
- A delivery vehicle powered by a liquid or solid fueled rocket that primarily travels in a ballistic (free-fall) trajectory. The flight of a ballistic missile includes three phases: 1) boost phase, where the rocket generates thrust to launch the missile into flight; 2) midcourse phase, where the missile coasts in an arc under the influence of gravity; and 3) terminal phase, in which the missile descends towards its target. Ballistic missiles can be characterized by three key parameters - range, payload, and Circular Error Probable (CEP), or targeting precision. Ballistic missiles are primarily intended for use against ground targets.
- Punitive measures, for example economic in nature, implemented in response to a state's violation of its international obligations.
- “Pakistan Arms Industry,” Pakistan Military Consortium, accessed 28 January 2011, www.pakdef.info.
- “India and Pakistan Sanctions and Other Measures,” 63 Federal Register 223 (19 November, 1998), pp. 64322-64342.
- “Presidential Determination No. 2001-28 of September 22, 2001: Waiver of Nuclear-Related Sanctions on India and Pakistan, Memorandum for the Secretary of State,” 66 Federal Register 191 (2 October 2001), p. 50095; “India and Pakistan: Lifting of Sanctions, Removal of Indian and Pakistani Entities, and Revision in License Review Policy,” 66 Federal Register 190 (1 October 2001), p. 50090, and Dianne E. Rennack, India and Pakistan: U.S. Economic Sanctions, CRS Report to Congress RS20995 (Washington, DC: The Library of Congress, 3 February 2003).