Pakistan Flag for Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistan first tested nuclear weapons in May 1998 in response to nuclear tests by its regional rival, India. The program owes its success in part to A.Q. Khan’s clandestine international nuclear smuggling network. Pakistan has vastly expanded its nuclear forces and remains outside the NPT regime; the country is also a major source of proliferation concern.

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Region   South Asia

~160-165 Nuclear weapons

≈ 3.7±0.4 Tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU)

6 Nuclear tests conducted

1998 Nuclear test moratorium began


Nuclear

  • Began pursuing a nuclear weapon through uranium enrichment in the mid-1970s under the direction of A.Q. Khan
  • Opposes negotiation on a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) in the UN Conference on Disarmament
  • Announced the development of low-yield tactical nuclear weapons in 2015

Pakistan Nuclear Overview


Biological

  • No credible evidence of biological weapons program
  • Has increased regulation and security of its domestic biological industry since the mid-2000s
  • Like many other states, possesses significant dual-use biotechnology capabilities

Pakistan Biological Overview


Missile

  • Deploys both ballistic and cruise missiles for nuclear weapons delivery
  • Has received foreign assistance to aid in the development of its ballistic and cruise missiles, most notably from China
  • Successfully conducted a test of the medium-range ballistic missile Shaheen III in February 2021

Pakistan Missile Overview


Chemical

  • Is not known to have ever possessed a chemical weapons program
  • Has periodically been accused of supplying chemical weapons or precursors to nonstate actors
  • Plays an active role in the OPCW and supports provisions to increase trade and assistance for the peaceful development of chemical industries

Pakistan Chemical Overview

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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NPT

The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Biological Weapons Convention (BTWC)

The BTWC mandates the elimination of existing biological weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using biological and toxin weapons.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM)

The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) focuses on the physical protection of peaceful use of nuclear materials

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Facilities

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Air Weapons Complex (AWC)

  • Location Kamra, Wah Cantonment
  • Type Missile-Production
  • Facility Status Active

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Khan Research Laboratories (KRL)

  • Location Rawalpindi
  • Type Missile-Production
  • Facility Status Active

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Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)

  • Location Headquartered in Karachi; additional facilities in Islamabad, Lahore, Multan, and Peshawar [1]
  • Type Missile-Production
  • Facility Status Active

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Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF)

  • Location Wah Cantt
  • Type Missile-Production
  • Facility Status Active

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Defense Science and Technology Organization (DESTO)

  • Location Chaklala Cantt, Rawalpindi
  • Type Missile-Production
  • Facility Status Operational

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Sonmiani Flight Test Range (FTR)

  • Location 50km W Karachi [1]
  • Type Missile-Testing
  • Facility Status Active

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Mashhood Test Firing Range (MTFR)

  • Location Tilla Jogian (25km west of Jhelum)
  • Type Missile-Testing
  • Facility Status Active

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Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology (GIKI)

  • Location Topi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
  • Type Missile-Education and Training
  • Facility Status Operational

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National Defense Complex (NDC)

  • Location Fatehjang, Tarwanah suburb, Rawalpindi (50km, SW Islamabad)
  • Type Missile-Production
  • Facility Status Active

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National Security Council of Pakistan (NSC)

  • Location Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Type Missile-Regulatory
  • Facility Status Active

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National Command Authority (NCA)

  • Location Islamabad
  • Type Missile-Regulatory
  • Facility Status Active [3]

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Strategic Plans Division (SPD)

  • Location Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Type Missile-Regulatory
  • Facility Status Active

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National Engineering and Scientific Commission (NESCOM)

  • Location Islamabad
  • Type Missile-Regulatory
  • Facility Status Active

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Kundian Nuclear Complex-1 (KNC-1)

  • Location Kundian, NW region of Punjab Province; Approximately 200km SW of Islamabad
  • Type Nuclear-Fuel Fabrication
  • Facility Status Operational

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Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

  • Location Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Type Nuclear-Regulatory
  • Facility Status Operational

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Karachi Institute of Power Engineering (KINPOE)

  • Location Approximately 25km west of Karachi
  • Type Nuclear-Education and Training
  • Facility Status Operational

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Analysis

Pakistan

Education Center

Extensive resources on nuclear policy, biological threats, radiological security, cyber threats and more.

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Sources

Hans M. Kristensen and Matt Korda, “Nuclear Notebook: Pakistani Nuclear Weapons, 2021,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 7 September 2021, www.fas.org.

“Countries: Pakistan,” International Panel on Fissile Materials, 18 May 2020, fissilematerials.org.

“Pakistan Rules Out Test Ban Treaty Endorsement,” Global Security Newswire, 19 June 2009, nti.org; and “Statement by Ambassador Zamir Akram, Permanent Representative of Pakistan at the Conference on Disarmament (CD),” Geneva, Reaching Critical Will, 27 August 2009, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.

Mohammad Ilyas Khan, “Why Pakistan Is Opening Up Over Its Nuclear Program,” BBC, 21 October 2015, bbc.com

US Department of State, “2015 Report on Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament Agreements and Commitments,” 5 June 2015, state.gov.

OPCW, “Statement by H.E. Ambassador Aizaz Ahmad Chaudhry, Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the OPCW, at the Sixty-Seventh Session of the Executive Council,” EC-67/NAT.12, 14 February 2012, opcw.org.

Shirley A. Kan, “China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues,” CRS Report for Congress RL31555, (Washington, DC: The Library of Congress, 16 August 2010).

Hashim, Asad. “Pakistan Successfully Tests Medium-Range Missile.” Accessed April 14, 2021. https://www.aljazeera.com/.

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