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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

  • Location
    Bangalore, Karnataka
  • Type
    Nuclear-Research and Development
  • Facility Status

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The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was established in October 1964 by merging Hindustan Aircraft Limited and Aeronautics India Limited. It is engaged in the “design, development, manufacture, repair, and overhaul of aircraft, helicopters, engines, and their accessories.” The company has 12 divisions located in six states and 11 R&D centers; its registered office is in Bangalore. HAL’s clients include the three armed services, the Border Security Force, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), and the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO). In FY 2021-2022, HAL achieved a turnover of $2.94 billion.

Although HAL’s principal function is the design, manufacture, repair, and overhaul of aircraft and helicopters, the company is also involved in ISRO’s satellite launch vehicle and DRDO’s missile and unmanned aerial vehicle programs.

  • HAL has conducted wind tunnel tests for the Nag anti-tank guided missile at its “low-speed closed circuit tunnel.”
  • HAL’s aerospace division at Bangalore manufactures wing bays, aerofoil wings, propellant tanks, and aluminum warhead casings for the Prithvi ballistic missile. Liquid-rocket engines for the Prithvi are produced at the Bangalore division’s Engine Test Bed Research & Development Centre. The latter has also developed the PTAE-7 jet engine for the Lakshya pilotless target aircraft.
  • The Prithvi’s inertial measurement unit chassis, which is part of the inertial navigation hardware, is machined at HAL. Accelerometers of 50mg, 100ppm-class are produced at the company’s Kanpur division.
  • The Hyderabad division of HAL manufactures components of the Prithvi’s servo control electronics such as the hybrid servo controller unit. Other devices used in the electro-hydraulic actuation systems of the Prithvi such as the bootstrap hydraulic reservoir, electro hydraulic servo actuator, pump motor package, accumulator, pressure relief valve, and return valve are manufactured at HAL’s Lukhnow division.


Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
UAV: Remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that can take on various intelligence or combat roles such as reconnaissance or targeted missiles strikes. The rapid proliferation of UAVs has raised concerns that they might serve as a delivery vehicle for a terrorist strike involving WMD.
Ballistic missile
A delivery vehicle powered by a liquid or solid fueled rocket that primarily travels in a ballistic (free-fall) trajectory.  The flight of a ballistic missile includes three phases: 1) boost phase, where the rocket generates thrust to launch the missile into flight; 2) midcourse phase, where the missile coasts in an arc under the influence of gravity; and 3) terminal phase, in which the missile descends towards its target.  Ballistic missiles can be characterized by three key parameters - range, payload, and Circular Error Probable (CEP), or targeting precision.  Ballistic missiles are primarily intended for use against ground targets.


[1] Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, hal-india.co.in, accessed February 2023.
[2] Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, “59th Annual Report 2021-22,” hal-india.co.in.
[3] “Defence Production and Supplies,” Ministry of Defence Annual Report: 2000-2001 (New Delhi: Government of India), pp. 53-55.
[4] Missile System Design and Analysis, Dr. N.C. Birla and B.S. Murthy, eds., Indian Defence Technology: Missile Systems (DRDO, Ministry of Defence, December 1998), pp. 41-43.
[5] Airframe Structures & Composite Components, Dr. N.C. Birla and B.S. Murthy, eds., pp. 56-59, 70.
[6] Fabrication and Manufacturing Technologies, Dr. N.C. Birla and B.S. Murthy, eds., p. 88.
[7] Propulsion Systems, Dr. N.C. Birla and B.S. Murthy, eds., p. 101.
[8] Control and Guidance, Dr. N.C. Birla and B.S. Murthy, eds., pp. 133, 146-151.
[9] Inertial Guidance and Sensors, Dr. N.C. Birla and B.S. Murthy, eds., p. 158.
[10] Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, www.hal-india.com.
[11] “PTAE-7 jet engine trial successful,” Hindu (Chennai), 24 January 2001, www.the-hindu.com.
[12] Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, “59th Annual Report 2021-22,” hal-india.co.in.


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