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Country Spotlight

India conducted its first nuclear explosive test in 1974 and possesses nuclear weapons, full nuclear fuel cycle capabilities, and a variety of nuclear delivery systems. Regional rival Pakistan’s first nuclear test in 1998 and the subsequent nuclear arms race between the two countries means the conflict now carries the potential risk of nuclear escalation.

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Region   South Asia

~160 Nuclear warheads

4.9±2 tons Estimated highly-enriched uranium stockpile

0.7±0.15 tons Estimated weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

1 Operational Arihant-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN)


  • Conducted test of a "peaceful nuclear explosion" code named “Smiling Buddha” in May 1974
  • Declared nuclear no first use policy; recent official statements cast doubt on future of policy
  • Expansion of fissile material stocks has provoked speculation about potential thermonuclear weapon development

India Nuclear Overview


  • No credible evidence showing the development or production of biological weapons
  • Has one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical industries and extensive dual-use capabilities
  • Possesses advanced biodefense capabilities

India Biological Overview


  • NEWS: In March 2024, India conducted the first flight test of the nuclear-capable Agni-V ballistic missile with a multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) capability
  • Possesses several types of operational nuclear-capable land-based ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and cruise missiles
  • Developing several new ballistic and cruise missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons
  • Developing anti-satellite weapon (ASAT) capabilities; successfully carried out ASAT missile tests in 2019 and 2022

India Missile Overview


  • Announced destruction of all chemical weapons stocks in March 2009
  • Has extensive civilian chemical and pharmaceutical industry; annually exports considerable quantities of Schedule 2 and 3 chemicals
  • Chemical industry is a major sector of the economy that includes trade in dual use chemicals

India Chemical Overview

Treaties and Regimes Memberships

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The NPT is a treaty aimed at limiting the spread of nuclear weapons through the three pillars of non-proliferation, disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear energy.

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Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosion tests on Earth. It needs eight key countries to ratify before entry into force.

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Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) requires countries to destroy all chemical weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using chemical weapons.

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Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)

The BTWC mandates the elimination of existing biological weapons and prohibits developing, stockpiling, or using biological and toxin weapons.

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Education Center

Extensive resources on nuclear policy, biological threats, radiological security, cyber threats and more.

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Hans M. Kristensen and Matt Korda, “Nuclear Notebook: How many nuclear weapons does India have in 2022?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 11 July 2022,

George Perkovich, India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

Ansuman Tripathy, “India Emerges a Top Five Pharmaceuticals Markets of the World,” Businessworld, 5 May 2018,

“Update on Chemical Demilitarisation,” Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, 21 April 2009,

Ashley J. Tellis, “India’s ASAT Test: An Incomplete Success,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 15 April 2019,

Doris Elin Urrutia, “India’s Anti-Satellite Missile Test Is a Big Deal. Here’s Why.”, 10 August 2022,

Shankhyaneel Sarkar, “BrahMos test-fired: List of missiles India has tested in last two months,” Hindustan Times, 18 October 2020,

“India conducts first flight test of domestic missile,” Reuters, 11 March 2024,


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