Organization of American States (OAS)

 

Signed: 30 April 1948

Membership: 35 (34 participating)

Twenty-one original OAS members (1948): Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Fourteen subsequent members: Barbados (1967); Trinidad and Tobago (1967); Jamaica (1969); Grenada (1975); Suriname (1977); Dominica (1979); Saint Lucia (1979); Antigua and Barbuda (1981); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1981); The Bahamas (1982); St. Kitts and Nevis (1984); Canada (1990); Belize (1991); Guyana (1991).

All 35 independent countries of the Americas have ratified the OAS Charter and belong to the organization. The 1962 resolution that excluded Cuba from participation in the OAS ceased to have effect as of 3 June 2009. Currently, Havana, has decided not to accept re-admission to the hemispheric body. Honduras was suspended from active participation on 5 July 2009. There are also 63 states with OAS permanent observer status.

Background: The principles that embody the Organization of American States (OAS) grew out of a history of regional cooperation dating back to the 19th century. In 1826, Simón Bolívar convened the Congress of Panama with the idea of creating an association of states in the hemisphere. On 30 April 1948, 21 countries signed in Bogotá, Colombia, the Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS), which affirmed their commitment to common goals and respect for each nation’s sovereignty. Since then, the OAS has expanded to include the nations of the Caribbean, as well as Canada.

Verification and Compliance: The Permanent Council is one of the organs through which the OAS accomplishes its purposes. It is composed of one representative of each Member State. The Permanent Council has the authority granted to it in the Charter of the Organization and other inter-American instruments and takes cognizance of any matter referred to it by the General Assembly or the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, as well as any matter brought to its attention by the secretary general on issues related to peace and security in the hemisphere or the development of Member States. Within the general framework of its competence, the Permanent Council has specific powers and functions, the most notable being those related to the peaceful settlement of disputes and its functions as the Organ of Consultation, as provided in the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR). 

The OAS Inventory File tracks developments relating to security issues and nonproliferation, as well as general OAS developments, in the following sections:    

Sections in the OAS File:                                                           

General Developments

Cooperation for Hemispheric Security

Confidence-and-Security-Building Measures

Mine Clearing

Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE):

General Developments:

2017: On 12 January, the Permanent Representative of Belize, Patrick Andrews, assumed the Chair of the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) and highlighted climate change and sustainable development as issues Belize will pursue while Chair.

2016: On 25-26 February, the 16th  Regular Session of the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) was held in Washington, D.C. Member States discussed cyber terrorism, cyber security, and confidence building measures in cyberspace.

On 17 March, a Special Meeting of the Permanent Council of the OAS was held in Washington, D.C.

On 13-15 June, the 46th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly was held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

On 31 October, the 51st Special Session of the OAS General Assembly was held in Washington, D.C.

2015: On 15-16 June, the 45th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly was held in Washington, D.C.

On 28 September, OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro announced the establishment of the “Mission to Support the Fight Against Corruption and Impunity in Honduras.” Abbreviated as MACCIH, it will be led by “an internationally recognized jurist” with the goal of improving the justice system by working in tandem with state institutions and civil society in Honduras.

On 1 October, Venezuela assumed the Chair of the Permanent Security Council of OAS. Delcy Rodriguez, Venezuela’s Foreign Minister, highlighted “development, progress, and well-being” as issues Venezuela hopes to pursue during its time as Chair.

2014: On 29 January, the President of Ecuador, Rafael Correa advocated for CELAC replacing OAS. He stated that OAS was an “instrument of domination of Washington.” While there was some support, no further action was taken.

On 3-5 June, the 44th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly was held in Asunción, Paraguay. The session adopted “The Americas:  A Zone of Peace, Cooperation, and Peaceful Dispute Settlement” (AG/RES. 2862) and “Advancing Hemispheric Security:  A Multidimensional Approach” (AG/RES. 2866). Participants reiterated their commitment to disarmament and nonproliferation.

On 11 July, OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C. hosted a discussion of “Multidimensional Security” within the context of Resolution 1540. Experts and policymakers, including OAS Assistant Secretary General Albert Ramdin and UN High Representative for Disarmament Affairs Angela Kane, made statements concerning nonproliferation in the OAS region and implementation of the resolution.

2013: On 1 March, OAS Secretary General received the Minister of Financial Services of the Bahamas to discuss financial development, economic cooperation and potential areas of support from the OAS to the Bahamas. In addition, the issue of drug trafficking and money laundering and their impact on the region were agreed upon as important areas of concern.

On 8 March, the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE) of the OAS met for its 13th annual regular session. Discussions included the importance of strengthening hemispheric cooperation in combating terrorism and its financing.

On 18 March, a special meeting of the OAS was held where the permanent representative to the OAS from St. Kitts and Nevis, Jacinth Henry-Martin paid tribute to the late President Chavez of Venezuela. The special meeting was held in the Simon Bolivar hall of the OAS headquarters in Washington, DC. 

The 43rd Regular Session of the General Assembly met from 4-6 June in La Antigua, Guatemala, and was chaired by Fernando Carrera of Guatemala.

2012: On 14 February, the Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), José Miguel Insulza, welcomed the 45th anniversary of the Treaty of Tlatelolco.

On 7 March, the OAS Secretary General inaugurated the Annual Meeting of the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE). The primary item of business was to discuss and adopt a declaration on the issue of cyber security in the Americas.

On 12-15 March, the OAS Assistant Secretary General convened a meeting of Andean governments on the importance of UNSC Resolution 1540.

On 26 April, the OAS concluded a workshop in Los Angeles, California, on combating methods of terrorist financing. The workshop was sponsored by the OAS’s Inter-American Committee on Terrorism (CICTE) and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) of the United States.

The 42nd Regular Session of the General Assembly met on 3-5 June in Cochabamba, Bolivia. In Resolution AG/RES.2735 the General Assembly expressed its support for a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East and called for a meeting inter alia to establish priorities in addressing UNSC Resolution 1540 from a hemispheric perspective.

2011: On 28 March, the OAS called for enforcement of multilateral mechanisms that promote nonproliferation and nuclear disarmament. The meeting was held with experts from various international organizations and it served as a prologue to the seminar on nonproliferation held by the Inter-American Defense College on March 29 and 30 in Washington DC.

On 9-13 May, the OAS held a “Hemispheric Workshop on Security and Cybercrime” in Miami to discuss challenges and initiatives in the coordination and sharing of information amongst governments.

On 1 June, the General Assembly lifted Honduras’ suspension from the OAS (AG/RES. 2) by a vote of 32-1 and allowed it to return as a full member, due to the return of previously deposed President José Manuel Zelaya.

On 5-7 June, the General Assembly of the Organization of American States held its 41st Regular Session in San Salvador, El Salvador. The Assembly adopted numerous resolutions covering various issues, including resolution on climate change in the hemisphere (which supports the outcomes of the 16th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in 2010 in Mexico), security, terrorism, arms trade, and human rights.

2010: The 39th Special Session of the General Assembly was held in Washington, D.C. on 24 March, 2010. Surinamese diplomat Albert Ramdin was re-elected for a second term as Assistant Secretary General of the Organization, and Secretary General José Miguel Insulza was also re-elected.

The 40th Regular Session of the General Assembly was held on 6-8 June in Lima, Peru. At the fourth plenary session, on 8 June, the General Assembly adopted a 12-part resolution (AG/RES. 2533) on disarmament and nonproliferation in the Hemisphere. It reaffirmed the importance of urging States to consider signing or ratifying the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) as quickly as possible, so that it may enter into force in the shortest possible time.

The plenary also resolved to invite all member states, particularly those with International Monitoring System facilities, to implement the CTBT’s verification regime when the Treaty enters into force, and to call upon the states of the Hemisphere to maintain the moratorium on nuclear tests, in accordance with the commitments undertaken at the 2000 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).

In addition, the plenary reiterated the invitation to member states to consider the recommendations contained in the United Nations Study on Disarmament and Non-proliferation Education in order to strengthen education and training for disarmament and nonproliferation. 

2009:  The 39th Regular Session of the General Assembly met on 2-3 June in San Pedro Sula, Honduras.  The host country determined the theme to be: “Toward a Culture of Nonviolence”.

On 3 June, the 1962 Resolution that excluded the Government of Cuba from its participation in the Inter-American system within OAS ceased to be in effect.

The 37th Special Session of the OAS was held from 30 June-4 July in Washington, D.C. The member-states invoked Article 21 of the Inter-American Democratic Charter, suspending Honduras from active participation. The unanimous decision was adopted as a result of the June 28 coup d’état that deposed President José Manuel Zelaya.

On 11 August, the OAS sent a team to Honduras to promote the re-establishment of democratic order. The mission will be accompanied by OAS Secretary General Jose Miguel Insulza, the Secretary of Political Affairs of the OAS, a Special Adviser, as well as the Foreign Ministers of Argentina, Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica.

2008: The 38th Regular Session of the General Assembly met on 1-3 June in Medellin, Colombia.

2007: The 37th Regular Session of the General Assembly met on 3-5 June in Panama.

2006: The 36th Regular Session of the General Assembly met on 4-6 June in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic. The first Hemispheric Reports on progress against corruption in the member states were made to the General Assembly. Reports related to the efforts of the member states to combat illegal drugs were also presented to the assembly

2005: The General Assembly elected José Miguel Insulza as the new secretary-general on 2 May.

The 35th Regular Session of the General Assembly met on 5-7 June in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.

The Fourth Summit of the Americas was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina on 4-5 November.  The focus was “creating jobs to fight poverty and strengthen democratic governance.”

2004: The Special Summit of the Americas convened in Monterrey, Mexico from 12-13 January. Delegates adopted the Declaration of Nuevo Leon, in which they addressed measures to combat poverty, promote social and economic development, and strengthen democracies. In addition, they recognized the threats posed by terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and resolved to help prevent the financing of terrorism by fighting transnational crime and the illicit trafficking of drugs, arms, and persons. In addition, the declaration called upon states that had not yet done so to ratify the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism and the 12 United Nations terrorism-related conventions and protocols.

Permanent observer status to the OAS was granted to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and to the People’s Republic of China, bringing the total number of permanent observers to 60.

On 6-8 June, the General Assembly met for its 34th Regular Session in Quito, Ecuador.

On 23 September, former Costa Rican President Miguel Angel Rodriguez became secretary general of the OAS, succeeding former Colombian President Cesar Gaviria. Immediately after taking office, Rodriguez resigned. Pursuant to Article 108 of the OAS Charter, the assistant secretary general, Ambassador Luigi R. Einaudi, assumed duties until the General Assembly elected José Miguel Insulza as the new secretary general on 2 May 2005.

2003: The OAS Inter-American Convention against Terrorism entered into force on 10 July.

Permanent Observer status was granted to two new states, Slovenia and Nigeria.

2002: On 3 June, 30 member states signed the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism at the 32nd regular session of the General Assembly.

2001: The Third Summit of the Americas was held in Quebec City, Canada. The member states adopted the Declaration of Quebec City and Plan of Action.

1999: Within the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (known by its Spanish acronym, CICAD), the basic framework for a Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism was developed. The Mechanism will measure progress in regional and national efforts against drugs.

1998: The Second Summit of the Americas was held in Santiago, Chile. The presidents and prime ministers of the hemisphere assigned to the OAS new mandates in areas including human rights, trade, education, anti-drug cooperation, and summit follow-up.

1997: The OAS Charter was reformed through the ratification of the Protocol of Washington. The agreement strengthens representative democracy by giving the OAS the right to suspend a member state whose democratically elected government is overthrown by force.

An inter-American treaty to combat illegal arms trafficking and production was signed. Presidents Bill Clinton of the United States and Ernesto Zedillo of Mexico attended the signing ceremony.

1996: A landmark anti-corruption treaty was adopted. The treaty was the first international agreement of its kind.

The Inter-American Council for Integral Development was established. The council was designed to promote cooperation among countries in fostering development and combating poverty.

1994: The Summit of the Americas in Miami was held. The hemisphere’s heads of state and government reaffirmed the role of the OAS in strengthening democratic values and institutions, and established a range of new roles and priorities for the organization.

1991: Resolution 1080, which set up procedures to react to threats to democracy in the hemisphere, was adopted. A key factor in helping to manage crises, resolution 1080 has been invoked four times: in Haiti (1991), Peru (1992), Guatemala (1993), and Paraguay (1996).

1986: The CICAD was created to confront the growing problem of the consumption, production and trafficking of illegal drugs.

1977: The Panama Canal Treaties were signed at the OAS by US President Jimmy Carter and Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos.

1970: The General Assembly was established as the highest decision-making body of the OAS.

1969: The American Convention on Human Rights was signed. This took effect in 1978, establishing the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, headquartered in Costa Rica.

1962: The Cuban government was excluded from participation in the inter-American system. Cuba remains a member of the OAS, but its government still may not vote or participate in organization activities.

1961: The Charter of Punta del Este was signed. The charter launched the Alliance for Progress, an ambitious cooperative program designed to strengthen democracy and achieve economic progress and greater social justice in the hemisphere. OAS technical cooperation programs were expanded to meet new responsibilities.

1959: The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights was created. It became a key player in the struggle against the hemisphere’s repressive regimes, and today continues to provide recourse to citizens who have suffered human rights violations.

1948: At the Ninth International American Conference, participants signed the OAS Charter and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the first international expression of human rights principles. Director General of the Pan American Union Alberto Lleras Camargo became the first secretary general of the OAS.

1910: The International Union of American Republics became the Pan American Union.

1890: The First International Conference of American States was held in Washington, DC. The Conference established the International Union of American Republics and its Secretariat, the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics – the forerunner of the OAS.

Cooperation for Hemispheric Security:

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In Article 2 of the Charter of the Organization of American States, the Member States proclaim that one of the essential purposes of the organization is “to strengthen the peace and security of the continent.” Since 1991, the OAS General Assembly has adopted a series of resolutions on cooperation for hemispheric security, covering its various aspects. In resolution AG/RES. 1123 of that year, the General Assembly established the framework for cooperation in the hemisphere, in stating that “the … international situation would seem to dictate the adoption of measures to ensure hemispheric security, strengthen democratic processes in all of the Member States and devote maximum resources in those countries to economic and social development” and that “such measures call for mechanisms for mutual consultation and an exchange of regional information to promote a climate of institutional international stability, progress, and confidence….”

The organization has recognized that “peace is not merely the absence of war but also includes interdependence and cooperation in promoting economic and social development. Moreover, disarmament, arms control and limitation, human rights, the strengthening of democratic institutions, environmental protection, and improvement of the quality of life for all are indispensable elements for the establishment of democratic, peaceful, and more secure societies.”

In this framework, the organization has emphasized regional contributions to global security and the need for enhanced dialogue on cooperation in peace, confidence, and security issues among the nations of the hemisphere, and has recommended that a consultation process be initiated at the earliest possible date as a step towards the limitation and control of conventional weapons.

The OAS General Assembly has considered the Treaty of Tlatelolco to be a cooperation security measure, as it represents one of the most momentous contributions to international law and to the ceaseless efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and guarantee international peace and security. This treaty has become the model for the establishment of other nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZ) in various regions of the world, such as the South Pacific (Treaty of Rarotonga), Southeast Asia (Treaty of Bangkok), and Africa (Treaty of Pelindaba), which, when they enter into force, will cover more than half the countries of the world and all of the Southern Hemisphere.

2013: On 4-6 June, the 43rd Regular Session of the General Assembly met in La Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala.

The General Assembly adopted AG/RES.2809 “Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach.” It reaffirms the OAS’s commitment to the Treaty of Tlateloco and the principles of nuclear disarmament. It also encouraged Member-States to sign and ratify the Arms Trade Treaty.

2012: The 42nd Regular Session of the General Assembly met on 3-5 June in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

AG/RES.2735 “Advancing Hemispheric Security: a Multidimensional Approach” affirms the General Assembly’s commitment to the Treaty of Tlateloco and urges states that have not yet ratified the treaty to do so.  It endorses the Hemispheric Plan of Action to Follow-up on the Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas (CP/doc.4708/12), which the Permanent Council had endorsed on 2 May, and calls for the Permanent Council to conduct an analysis of the effectiveness of the Declaration on Security in the Americas.  It also endorses the Document of Port of Spain: Institutionalization of MISPA , the Recommendations of the Port of Spain on Police Management, and the “Course of Action 2012-2016 for the Operation and Implementation of the CIFTA.”

2011: On 15 April, the OAS Secretary General began the 12th Regular Meeting of CIFTA by noting that “illicit firearms trafficking is one of the main indicators of organized crime in the region”.

On 5-7 June, the 41st Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met in San Salvador, El Salvador.

AG/RES. 2624 (XLI-O/11) “Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlateloco)” calls upon those states of the region that have not yet done so to sign or ratify the amendments to the Treaty of Tlatelolco, and to reaffirm their commitments to disarmament and nonproliferation.

The resolution also calls upon “OPANAL to continue, in its area of competence, to maintain ongoing contact with the Committee on Hemispheric Security and to report to it periodically on the fulfillment of the commitments undertaken by the states of the region in the Declaration on Security in the Americas, in particular, paragraph 11 thereof, as they pertain to nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.”

AG/RES. 2627 (XLI-O/11) “Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials” calls upon states to urge all member states that have not already done so to give consideration to ratifying or acceding to the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), and to adopt measures for its effective implementation.

 

AG/RES. 2628 (XLI-O/11) “Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions” calls upon states to reaffirm their commitment to the principles of the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions and other related instruments applicable at the global, regional, and subregional levels, and to invite all member states which have not already done so to accede to the Convention.

2010: The 40th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 6-8 June in Lima, Peru and adopted 4 resolutions relating to regional security.

AG/RES. 2533 “Disarmament and Nonproliferation in the Hemisphere” calls upon member states to promote ratifications of the CTBT, to invite all member states to implement the CTBT’s verification regime when the Treaty enters into force, to maintain the moratorium on nuclear tests, to give consideration to the recommendations contained in the United Nations Study on Disarmament and Non-proliferation Education, and to include the topic of “Disarmament and nonproliferation in the Hemisphere” in the Committee on Hemispheric Security (CSH) calendar of activities for the 2011-2012 period.

AG/RES. 2534 “Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)” calls upon states to refrain from providing any form of support to non-state actors that attempt to possess or use nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons and their means of delivery. The resolution also calls on states to provide additional information to the 1540 Committee on efforts to implement UNSCR 1540, and to keep the item “Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)” on the agenda of the Committee on Hemispheric Security.

AG/RES. 2535 “Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials” calls upon states to urge all member states that have not already done so to give consideration to ratifying or acceding to the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA), and to adopt measures for its effective implementation.

AG/RES. 2552 “Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions” calls upon states to reaffirm their commitment to the principles of the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions and other related instruments applicable at the global, regional, and subregional levels, and to invite all member states which have not already done so to accede to the Convention.

2009:  The 39th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 2-3 June in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, and adopted several resolutions relating to regional security.

AG/RES. 2442 “Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco)” calls upon remaining states to sign and ratify the treaty of Tlatelolco, to reaffirm states’ commitment to disarmament and nonproliferation, to recognize and support OPANAL’s mission and to encourage participation in the 2010 NPT Review Conference.

AG/RES. 2445 “Inter-American Convention of Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions” reaffirms the principles of the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons and encourages other states to sign, ratify, or accede to the Convention, invites technical assistance and voluntary contributions to support the mission, and requests the UN General Secretariat to contact States Parties to provide annual export reports of conventional weapons.

2008: The 38th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 1-3 June in Medellin, Colombia, and adopted several resolutions relating to regional security:

AF/RES. 2358 "Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540" urges all member states to comply with Resolution 1540, provide any necessary additional information, and noted the OAS workshop on implementation held 13-14 May in Buenos Aires.

AG/RES. 2359 "Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty" calls for all states to sign and/or ratify the CTBT and for a stronger campaign to promote that ratification in the Hemisphere.

AG/RES. 2360 "Disarmament and Nonproliferation Education" calls for the promotion of disarmament and nonproliferation education throughout the Hemisphere.

AG/RES. 2377, “Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco)" calls for all states to ratify amendments to the treaty and reaffirms the importance of OPANAL.

AG/RES. 2381 "Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firemans, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials" calls for states to  ratify or accede to, as the case may be, the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA) and incorporate into their national law, as appropriate, legally binding subregional, regional, and international instruments for strengthening border control in the region against illicit trafficking in firearms, ammunition, explosives, and related materials.

2007: The 37th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 3-5 June in Panama and adopted several resolutions relating to regional security:

AG/RES. 2260, “Disarmament and Nonproliferation Education” reiterates the organization’s mandate of nonproliferation education per AG/RES. 2109. Accordingly, the organization asks that the Permanent Council continue to identify means of effectively promoting disarmament and nonproliferation education throughout the hemisphere.

AG/RES. 2268, “Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions” encourages transparency by extending invitations to external observers and by producing timely reports and notifications as required under Articles III and IV of the convention. The resolution also made provisions for 2008 meeting to prepare for the 2009 conference to review the effectiveness of the convention.

AG/RES. 2273Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty,” promotes greater involvement on the part of those states already a party to the treaty and to strongly encourage those states that still have yet to sign and ratify the treaty to do so as soon as possible.

AG/RES. 2274Follow-up to the Special Conference on Security,” urges states to continue implementing the Declaration on Security in the Americas as well as stressing the importance of the Permanent Council’s work through the Committee on Hemispheric Security.

AG/RES. 2297Addressing Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons: Stockpile Management and Security,” urges member states to continue implementing measures specified in other agreements (such as the UN Programme of Action) and Resolutions (such as OAS regulation of MANPADS in AG/RES. 2145) in this regard.

AG/RES. 2298Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty of the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco),” requests that those states of the region that have yet to sign or ratify the amendments to this treaty do so, while also expressing a general reaffirmation of the tenets of the treaty.

2006: The 36th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly, which met on 4-6 June in Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, adopted several resolutions relating to regional security:

AG/RES. 2245, “Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco)” calls upon the nations that have not ratified the treaty to do so and reaffirms the importance of strengthening OPANAL as a monitoring body.

 

AG/RES. 2186, “Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty” recognizes that the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones is an effective and concrete mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of international peace and security.

2005: The 35th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met on 5-7 June in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. The assembly adopted several resolutions regarding regional security:

Resolution AG/RES. 2094 (XXXV-O/05), “Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunitions, Explosives, and other Related Materials (CIFTA),” encouraged the ratification of CIFTA and the broad participation of members in its subsequent meetings and actions.

The assembly also passed AG/RES. 2104 (XXXV-O/05), “Consolidation of the Regimes Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean,” supporting the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in
Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) in furthering the Treaty of Tlatelolco.

AG/RES. 2107 (XXXV-O/05), “The Americas as a Biological- and Chemical-Weapons-Free Region,” resolves the shared commitment of members to establish a region free of chemical and biological weapons through a series of special meetings of the OAS.

AG/RES. 2108 (XXXV-O/05), “The Proliferation of and the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects,” resolved to increase the participation of OAS members in the UN Program of Action against illicit trade, encouraging members to engage in existing confidence-building measures to identify and secure excess stocks.

AG/RES. 2109 (XXXV-O/05), “Disarmament and Nonproliferation Education,” resolves to produce a document detailing relevant actions by the OAS to promote education on issues of disarmament and nonproliferation.

AG/RES. 2110 (XXXV-O/05), “Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions,” requests the submission and circulation of states’ reports on transparency. The resolution also proposes that the Permanent Council establish a meeting aimed at developing incentives for more states to become party to the convention.

AG/RES. 2111 (XXXV-O/05), “Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT),” encourages all states that have not done so to sign and ratify the treaty. The resolution also calls for the Permanent Council to hold a meeting in 2006 in conjunction with OPANAL, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the UN on a worldwide comprehensive nuclear test ban. The resolution also includes a note stating that the United States, while a party of the OAS, does not support and will not ratify the CTBT.

2004: On 6-8 June, the OAS General Assembly met for its 34th Regular Session in Quito, Ecuador, and adopted several resolutions regarding the security situation in the region.

Resolution AG/RES. 1998 (XXXIV-O/04), “Follow-up to the Special Conference on Security,” endorsed the conference’s Declaration on Security in the Americas, urging all states to implement it, and also requested that the Permanent Council, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security, coordinate OAS bodies to implement the declaration and report on its progress. In addition, it instructed the secretary general to strengthen the secretariat’s capacity to better serve hemispheric security issues.   

Resolution AG/RES. 1997 (XXXIV-O/04) “Proliferation of and Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW)” contains several recommendations and requests, including encouraging Member States to implement the UN Program of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, requesting that the Permanent Council hold an annual Committee on Hemispheric Security meeting on small arms and light weapons (SALW), and urging states to sign or ratify the UN Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition and take part in other UN initiatives on the subject. In addition, the assembly requested that the Inter-American Defense Board prepare a handbook for Member States regarding best practices for identification, collection, management, security, and destruction of stockpiles of SALW by early 2005. 

Resolution AG/RES. 1999 (XXXIV-O/04) on the “Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials,” urged states to sign and ratify the Convention and stated their support for the Declaration of Bogotá regarding the Convention’s application.  

Additional resolutions issued by the General Assembly were resolution AG/RES. 2000 (XXXIV-O/04) on “The Americas as a Biological and Chemical-Weapons-Free Region,” and resolution AG/RES. 2008 (XXXIV-O/04) regarding the CTBT. In the former, assembly members resolved to free the area of chemical and biological weapons and reaffirmed members’ commitment to arms control, disarmament, the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Biological Weapons Convention, and the Geneva Protocol. It urged states to adhere to, create measures to implement, and universalize these conventions and to subscribe to the International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation. It also requested that the Permanent Council review such efforts in the framework of the Committee on Hemispheric Security. In the second resolution, the OAS urged Member States to implement the “Measures to Promote the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,” adopted at the September 2003 CTBT conference in Vienna and asked relevant states to sign and/or ratify the treaty. It also asked states to maintain, until the treaty enters into force, a moratorium on nuclear testing, and to support the CTBT verification regime. Additionally, it instructed the Committee on Hemispheric Security to hold a special meeting on the issue in 2005 in cooperation with the OPANAL, the UN, and the CTBTO Preparatory Commission.

Resolution AG/RES. 2001 (XXXIV-O/04), entitled “Limitation of Military Spending,” commits assembly members to continue promoting an environment conducive to arms control, nonproliferation, and limitations on conventional weapons. The resolution also urged states to implement confidence- and security-building measures and participate in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures.

Resolution AG/RES. 2009 (XXXIV-O/04)  “Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean,” encourages relevant states to sign and ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco and to implement comprehensive safeguards agreements and the Additional Protocol with the International Atomic Energy Agency. It also encouraged the Permanent Council to consider holding a meeting regarding this with OPANAL and the UN.

2003: The 33rd Regular Session of the General Assembly convened in Santiago, Chile from 8-10 June under Chilean Foreign Affairs Minister Maria Soledad, and issued several resolutions regarding hemispheric security issues. In resolution AG/RES. 1937 (XXXIII-O/03), assembly members urged relevant states to sign or ratify amendments to the Treaty of Tlatelolco and to negotiate and implement agreements with the IAEA, and reaffirmed its commitment to a universal, nondiscriminatory nonproliferation regime. In another resolution [AG/RES. 1938 (XXXIII-O/03)], the assembly urged states to participate in the Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the CTBT. In resolution AS/RES 1963, the assembly addressed military expenditures and agreed to promote an environment that would encourage arms control, limitations on conventional weapons, and WMD nonproliferation. Resolutions were also passed reaffirming the assembly’s commitment to making the Americas a biological- and chemical-weapon-free region. The General Assembly requested, in resolution AG/RES. 1968 (XXXIII-O/03), that the Permanent Council convene an annual meeting on small arms and light weapons to review the implementation of the UN Program of Action. The General Assembly also welcomed the July 2002 establishment of the South American Zone of Peace and Cooperation, and resolved to strengthen the OAS agenda by further addressing hemispheric security issues, and encouraged the adoption of an implementation plan regarding security management for small island states. Finally, the assembly encouraged Member States to sign and ratify the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials.

A Special Conference on Security was convened in Mexico City from 27-28 October. Delegates adopted a Declaration on Security in the Americas in which they addressed a broad range of topics, including new threats from terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and other problems, and recognized the importance of the Tlatelolco Treaty. The declaration also emphasized Member States’ commitment to the BTWC, CWC and NPT and stated their objective of making the Americas a region free of biological and chemical weapons and of preventing the proliferation of WMD, and made several recommendations to individual OAS bodies towards these ends.

Additionally, the Conference adopted a Declaration on a Central American Democratic Security Model, in which it encouraged Member States to continue to implement the Framework Treaty on Democratic Security, and recommended that the Secretariat support initiatives regarding democratic security that might require OAS assistance.

2002: On 4 June, the General Assembly decided to convene the Special Conference on Security for the first half of May 2003 in Mexico. The decision was based on the outcome of the Second Summit of the Americas held in Santiago, Chile in 1998, which instructed the Committee on Hemispheric Security to “analyze the meaning, scope, and implications of international security concepts in the hemisphere, with a view to developing the most appropriate common approaches by which to manage their various aspects, including disarmament and arms control” with a view to holding a Special Conference on Security in the framework of the OAS.

On 25 November, the General Secretariat presented “Report on Signatures and Ratifications of the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions” to the Committee on Hemispheric Security. As of 26 November, 20 states have signed the Convention and seven states have deposited their instruments of ratification or accession. The Convention entered into force on 21 November, the 30th day following the date of the sixth instrument of ratification by a Member State.

2001: In the Declaration of Quebec, the Member States reaffirmed their commitment to maintain peace and security through the effective use of hemispheric means for the peaceful resolution of disputes and the adoption of confidence- and security-building measures and reiterated their full adherence to the principle that committed states refrain from the threat or use of force, in accordance with international law. In conformity with the principles of international humanitarian law, the Member States strongly condemned attacks on civilian populations and expressed willingness to take all feasible measures to ensure that the children of their countries did not participate in armed conflict and condemned the use of children by irregular forces. They reaffirmed that the constitutional subordination of armed forces and security forces to the legally constituted civilian authorities and the respect for the rule of law on the part of all national institutions and sectors of society were fundamental to democracy. They also voiced readiness to strive to limit military expenditures while maintaining capabilities commensurate with their legitimate security needs and to promote greater transparency in the acquisition of arms.

The Plan of Action adopted at the 2001 Third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City, Canada, called on the Member States to hold a Special Conference on Security in 2004, for which the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security will conclude the review of all issues related to approaches to international security in the hemisphere, continue with priority activities on conflict prevention and the peaceful resolution of disputes, improve the transparency and accountability of defense and security institutions and promote greater understanding and cooperation among government agencies involved in security and defense issues. They will accomplish these goals through such means as increased sharing of defense policy and doctrine papers, and information and personnel exchanges, including, where feasible, cooperation and training for participation in UN peacekeeping activities. They plan to respond better to legitimate security and defense needs, by improving transparency of arms acquisitions to improve confidence and security in the hemisphere.

1999: The General Assembly adopted the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions.

1997: Through resolution AG/RES. 1500 (XXVII-O/97), “Mutual Confidence in the Americas,” the General Assembly instructed the Permanent Council to consider the desirability of approving a legal framework on the issue of advance notification of major arms acquisitions covered by the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms.

1995: The General Assembly, through resolution AG/RES. 1353 (XX-O/95), created the Committee on Hemispheric Security. Its main function is to study and make recommendations to the Permanent Council on any matters relating to hemispheric security that may be entrusted to it by the Permanent Council and, through it, by the General Assembly, in particular with a view to promoting cooperation in this field. Since its creation, the Committee has constituted a forum for representatives of the countries of the Americas to exchange views on a broad range of issues, including confidence- and security-building; the Western Hemisphere as an antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone; the special security concerns of small island states; support for the Mine-Clearing Program in Central America; design of an Education for Peace Program in the hemisphere; transparency in conventional weapons acquisitions; and consolidation of the regime established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. 

Confidence-and-Security-Building Measures:

2013: On 4-6 June, the 43rd Regular Session of the General Assembly met in La Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala.

The General Assembly adopted AG/RES.2809 “Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach.” The Resolution expressed support for continued implementation of confidence- and security-building measures and requested that the Sixth Meeting of the Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures meet in 2015.

2012: On 3-5 June, the 42nd Regular Session of the General Assembly met in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

AG/RES.2735 “Advancing Hemispheric Security: a Multidimensional Approach” calls upon the Permanent Council to convene the 5th Meeting of the Forum on Confidence-and-Security-Building Measures in February 2013 and urges states to provide yearly information on the progress of confidence-and-security-building measures.

2011: On 5-7 June, the 41st Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met in San Salvador, El Salvador.

AG/RES. 2625 (XLI-O/11) “Confidence- And Security Building in the Americas” calls upon states to continue to encourage and implement confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) in keeping with the provisions of the Declarations of San Salvador and Santiago on Confidence-and Security Building Measures, the Consensus of Miami, and the Declaration on Security in the Americas.

2010: The 40th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 6-8 June in Lima, Peru and adopted AG/DEC. 63 “Declaration of Lima: Peace, Security, and Cooperation in the Americas,” which declares member states’ commitment to international peace, security and cooperation in order to address threats that affect the region. The declaration also calls on states to remain committed to promoting transparency in arms acquisitions, and to continue to promote in the Hemisphere a climate conducive to arms control, limitation of conventional weapons, and the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and to remain committed to implementing confidence- and security-building measures identified in the Declaration of Santiago, the Declaration of San Salvador, and the Consensus of Miami.          

2009: The 39th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 2-3 June in San Pedro Sula, Honduras and adopted AG/RES 2443 “Follow-Up to the Special Conference on Security.”  The resolution urges all member states to continue to implement the Declaration on Security in the Americas, endorses the Final Act of the Commemoration of the Fifth Anniversary of the Declaration on Security in the Americas, requests the Permanent Council to convene a meeting in late 2009 to review the draft agenda, and requests the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security to propose a methodology with guidelines for the preparation and submission by member states of voluntary reports on the implementation of the Declaration to the CSH.

The Conference also adopted AG/RES. 2447 “Confidence- and Security-Building in the Americas.” The resolution calls upon all member states to submit information on the application of the Consolidated List of Confidence and Security Building Measures to the General Secretariat by 15 July of each year, reaffirms the goal of universal participation by all member states in the United Nations (UN) Register of Conventional Arms and the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures by 2010, and requests the General Secretariat to update the Roster of Experts on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures every year.

2008: The 38th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 1-3 June in Medellin, Colombia and adopted AG/RES. 2357 "Follow-Up to the Special Conference on Security".  The resolution urges all member states to continue implementing the Declaration on Security in the Americas, with a view to consolidating peace, stability, and security in the Hemisphere.

2007: The 37th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 3-5 June in Panama and adopted AG/RES. 2270Confidence- and Security-Building in the Americas”.  The resolution endeavors to generally improve the transparency of military expenditures through better reporting and a greater participation in the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms and the United Nations Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures.

2006: The 36th Regular Session of the General Assembly which took place in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, adopted resolutions relating to security interests. AG/RES. 2185, “Follow Up to the Special Conference on Security” was adopted at this conference, resolving to urge all member states to continue implementing the Declaration on Security in the Americas (“the Declaration”), with a view to consolidating peace, stability, and security in the hemisphere.

 

2005: At the 35th Regular Session of the General Assembly, which took place in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida on 5-7 June, states discussed the importance of confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) in the areas of disarmament and nonproliferation. The General Assembly passed AG/RES. 2113, “Transparency and Confidence- and Security-Building in the Americas,” urging Member States to implement CSBMs and submit reports on their application.  

 

 

2004: At its 34th Regular Session on 8 June in Quito, Ecuador, the General Assembly adopted resolution AG/RES. 1996 (XXXIV-O/04) on “Transparency and Confidence- and Security-Building in the Americas,” in which it resolved to urge Member States to implement recommendations contained in the declarations of Santiago and San Salvador and to consider signing, ratifying, or acceding to the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions. In addition, among other recommendations, it encouraged states to submit reports on their confidence- and security-building measures and requested that they develop specific confidence-enhancing measures to address new threats and promote transparency.

 

2003: During its 33rd Regular Session in June held in Santiago, Chile, the  General Assembly passed a resolution requesting that the Permanent Council periodically constitute the Committee on Hemispheric Security as the Forum for CSBMs to evaluate existing and propose new CSBMs.

2002: On 4 June in Barbados, the General Assembly adopted a resolution “Confidence- and Security-Building in the Americas” (AG/RES. 1879 (XXXII-O/02)). The resolution urged Member States to implement the recommendations of the Declaration of San Salvador and the Declaration of Santiago on Confidence-and Security-Building Measures. It also urged Member States to continue promoting transparency in defense policy with regard to, among other things, modernizing the armed forces, including changes in their structure and composition, the acquisition of equipment and material, and military expenditures.

The General Assembly adopted a resolution “Summit-Mandated Meeting of Experts on Confidence- and Security- Building Measures in the Region” (AG/RES. 1880 (XXXII-O/02)). The General Assembly convened the summit-Mandated meeting in the region, in Miami, Florida in 5-6 December to evaluate implementation and consider the next steps to further consolidate mutual confidence.

2001: The Quebec City Plan of Action urged the Member States to continue promoting greater degrees of confidence and security in the hemisphere, inter alia, through sustained support for measures, such as those set forth in the Santiago and San Salvador Declarations on CSBMs. It also called for an experts’ meeting, before the Special Conference on Security, as a follow-up to the regional conferences of Santiago and San Salvador on CSBMs, in order to evaluate implementation and consider next steps to further consolidate mutual confidence.

1999: The resolution “Confidence and Security-Building in the Americas” (AG/RES. 1623 (XXIX-O/99)), requested the secretary general to maintain and facilitate access to the comprehensive inventory of CSBMs, which the Member States have submitted pursuant to the previous paragraph and requested the Permanent Council to consider, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security, actions to promote the development and exchange of information concerning defense policies and doctrines. The resolution reiterated the importance of all Member States fully participating in the UN Register of Conventional Arms and of providing the required information for the preparation of the United Nations Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures. It urged Member States to continue consultations and the exchange of ideas within the hemisphere so as to make progress in the limitation and control of conventional arms in the region; and to instruct the Permanent Council to endeavor, through the Committee on Hemispheric Security, to advance the development of the most appropriate approach making it possible, at the regional level, to increase transparency and address questions related to conventional arms.

1998: The Second Regional Conference on Confidence- and Security- Building Measures in follow-up to the Santiago Conference was held in San Salvador, El Salvador, in February. At this Conference, the Member States agreed to nine additional measures, which are contained in the Declaration of San Salvador on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures.

1995: The Member States of the OAS held the Regional Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures in Santiago, Chile, in November. The Declaration of Santiago on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures emanating from this Conference contains 11 measures agreed by the states to build confidence, dialogue, and the exchange of views on hemispheric security-related matters.

1994: The Heads of State and Government of the Hemisphere, meeting at the First Summit of the Americas, held in December, declared in the Plan of Action their intention to support “actions to encourage a regional dialogue to promote the strengthening of mutual confidence, preparing the way for a regional conference on confidence-building measures in 1995 …”

1993: As a result of the work of the working group set up in 1991, the General Assembly, through resolution AG/RES. 1237 (XXIII-O/93), resolved to convene the first meeting of government experts on confidence- and security-building measures in the hemisphere, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in March 1994.

1991: The Member States, meeting at the 21st regular session of the OAS General Assembly in Santiago, Chile, expressed their resolve to begin a process of consultation on hemispheric security in view of new regional and world realities. Through its resolution AG/RES. 1123 (XXI-O/91), “Cooperation for Security in the Hemisphere,” the General Assembly entrusted the Permanent Council with setting up a working group, with the specific mandate of studying and making recommendations on cooperation on the various dimensions of hemispheric security.

Mine-Clearing:

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The Member States of the Organization of American States have adopted the goal of global elimination of antipersonnel land mines to convert the Western Hemisphere into an antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone.

2013: On 4-6 June, the 43rd Regular Session of the General Assembly met in La Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala.

The General Assembly adopted AG/RES.2809 “Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach.” Similar to AG/RES.2735 adopted in 2012, AG/RES.2809 reaffirms the OAS’s commitment to pursuing a Western Hemisphere free of land mines. It also praises the activities of Peru and Ecuador to establish a Binational Humanitarian Demining Unit.

2012: On 3-5 March the OAS held a workshop in Bogota, Colombia to evaluate programs designed to reduce the number of antipersonnel landmines

On 3-5 June, the 42nd Regular Session of the General Assembly met in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

AG/RES.2735 “Advancing Hemispheric Security: a Multidimensional Approach” calls for states to fulfill their obligations under the Ottawa Convention and the Cartagena Declaration and commends efforts by Peru and Ecuador to reduce the length of time required for humanitarian demining.  It condemns the stockpiling and use of mines by non-state actors and calls for non-state actors to observe the international norms of the Ottawa Convention.

2011: On 5-7 June, the 41st Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met in San Salvador, El Salvador.

AG/RES. 2630 (XLI-O/11) “The Americas as an Antipersonnel Land Mine-Free Zone” recognizes the comprehensive progress made on the issue of antipersonnel land mines, and calls upon all member states to renew their support to rid their territories of antipersonnel land mines and destroy their stockpiles, and to convert the Americas into the world’s first antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone.

2010: The 40th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 6-8 June in Lima, Peru and adopted AG/RES. 2559 “The Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free_Zone.” The resolution calls on member states to renew efforts to rid their territories of antipersonnel land mines and destroy their stockpiles, and to convert the Americas into the world’s first antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone. The resolution also calls on states to urge those state parties that requested and were granted extensions under Article 5 of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (Ottawa Convention) to make necessary efforts to comply with their Article 5 obligations within the periods established.

2009:  The 39th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 2-3 June in San Pedro Sula, Honduras and adopted one resolution regarding mine-clearing:

AG/RES. 2453 “The Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone” supports humanitarian mine action efforts in the Republic of Nicaragua, urges the international donor community to continue its humanitarian, technical and financial support for victim rehabilitation and the Ecuador-Peru demining program, condemns the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices by non-state actors, requests the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) to continue providing technical advice to the Program for Comprehensive Action against Antipersonnel Mines (AICMA), and urges member states to become party to the Ottawa Convention, the 1980 United Nations Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and to the five protocols, and to implement the Nairobi Action Plan.

2008: The 38th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 1-3 June in Medellin, Colombia and adopted two resolutions regarding mine-clearing:

AG/RES.2355 "Support for Action Against Antipersonnel Mines in Ecuador and Peru" encourages the Governments of Ecuador and Peru to continue cooperating in efforts to rid their territories completely of antipersonnel mines and recognizes the important work and achievements of the Governments of Ecuador and Peru in destroying their stockpiles and in mine-clearing in common border areas and, in the case of Peru, in other areas of its respective territory.

AG/RES. 2399 "The Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone" calls for member states to strive jointly to rid their territories of antipersonnel land mines and destroy their stockpiles to convert the Americas into the world's first antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone, urges the international donor community to continue its support, and urges member states which have not yet done so to become party as soon as possible to the 1980 United Nations Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects and to the five protocols thereto.

2007: The 37th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met 3-5 June in Panama and adopted several resolutions regarding mine-clearing:

AG/RES. 2261, “Support for Action against Antipersonnel Mines in Ecuador and Peru,” encourages Ecuador and Peru to continue to remove landmines from their respective territories.  The resolution also encourages international organizations to continue to provide technical and financial support. Furthermore, the resolution requested that the General Secretariat continue to support and work through the Program for Comprehensive Action against Antipersonnel Mines (AICMA) to raise voluntary support from member states, other states and international organizations.

AG/RES. 2269, “The Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone,” endeavors to clear Central America of land mines by 2008 by establishing the first land mine free zone in the world. To this end, the resolution also advised that those states that still have not become a party to the 1980 United Nations Convention on “Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects” do so as soon as possible.

2006: Resolutions relating to mine-clearing were adopted at the 36th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly, which met in Santo Domingo on 4-6 June. AG/RES. 2180, “The Americas as an Anti-Personnel Land Mine Free Zone” was adopted, reiterating concerns about the dangers of anti-personnel mines still present on the continent. AG/RES. 2181, “Support for Action against Anti-Personnel Mines in Ecuador and Peru” called for the complete elimination of anti-personnel mines in those countries.

2005: The 35th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly, which met on 5-7 June in Ft. Lauderdale, adopted AG/RES. 2142, “The Americas As an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone.” The resolution urges Member States to take a range of actions to strengthen the norm against the use of antipersonnel mines.

2004: Several resolutions related to mine-clearing were adopted at the 34th Regular Session of the General Assembly in June. In Resolution 1995, “Support for the Program of Integral Action against Antipersonnel Mines in Central America,” delegates encouraged Central American states’ efforts to make de-mining a priority and appealed to Member States and observers to continue their support for the Program of Integral Action against Antipersonnel Mines. Assembly members also asked the Secretariat to provide the necessary resources for mine-clearing programs and the Inter-American Defense Board to continue providing technical support.

Additional resolutions adopted regarding mine-clearing were resolution AG/RES. 2002 (XXXIV-O/04), “Support for Action against Antipersonnel Mines in Ecuador and Peru,” which recognized these states’ efforts and encouraged the provision of technical and financial assistance to their mine-clearing programs, and resolution AG/RES. 2003 (XXXIV-O/04), “The Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone.” In the latter, assembly members reaffirmed the goals of global elimination of antipersonnel land mines in the Americas and encouraged states to take various actions, such as ratification of or accession to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and On Their Destruction, toward this end.

2003: The General Assembly adopted several resolutions addressing antipersonnel mine removal during its 33rd Regular Session in June. It encouraged the provision of support for the Mine-Clearing Assistance Program in Central America, acknowledged the accomplishments of Ecuador and Peru in destroying their stockpiles and in mine-clearing efforts, and also reaffirmed its commitment to the universal elimination of antipersonnel land mines and the creation of an antipersonnel-landmine-free zone. Finally, it urged states to ratify the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and On Their Destruction, and to become parties to the UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, and asked the secretary general to consider developing new mine action programs.

During the course of the year, the Comprehensive Action against Antipersonnel Mines program (AICMA) supported activities in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Peru, removing more than 48,000 mines. In addition, Costa Rica declared itself free of antipersonnel mines.

2002: On 15 March, the OAS Comprehensive Mine Action Program appealed for continued assistance from the international community for its mine-clearing programs in various countries of the Americas. According to the Coordinator of the Mine Action Program, the program is facing serious financial difficulties that could interrupt mine-clearing programs in Central America, at a time when some of those nations are close to being declared landmine-free.

2001: The 2001 Quebec City Plan of Action urged the Member States to strongly support the Third Meeting of State Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, to be held in September 2001 in Managua, Nicaragua, and the Review Conference of the 1980 UN Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, to be held in December 2001 in Geneva; as well as the efforts of the OAS to pursue the goal of the conversion of the Western Hemisphere into an anti-personnel- landmine-free zone.

1999: The Ottawa Convention entered into force on 1 March, with the required 40 states having ratified it by September 1998. To date, with the exception of the United States and Cuba, all the nations of the Americas have signed and 31 have ratified the Convention.

The 1999 resolution “The Western Hemisphere as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone” (AG/RES. 1644 (XXIX-O/99)) reaffirmed the goals of the global elimination of antipersonnel landmines and the conversion of the Western Hemisphere into an antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone. The resolution called upon Member States that had not yet done so to declare and implement moratoria on the production, use, and transfer of all antipersonnel landmines in the Western Hemisphere at the earliest possible date and to continue to implement measures aimed at halting the proliferation of antipersonnel landmines and at the destruction of stockpiles.

1998: The Organization of American States, through AG/RES. 1569 (XXVIII-O/98), urged the Member States that have not yet signed or ratified the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (also known as the Ottawa Convention) to consider doing so at the earliest possible date. Those that have already signed the Convention are called upon to report to the General Secretariat on the status of their ratification process.

1994-1998: The OAS has reaffirmed its goal of global elimination of antipersonnel landmines, and consequently, of converting the Western Hemisphere into an antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone, through its resolutions AG/RES. 1299 (XXIV-O/94) and AG/RES. 1343 (XXV-O/95), on anti-personnel landmines and resolutions AG/RES. 1411 (XXVI-O/96), AG/RES. 1496 (XXVII-O/97), and AG/RES. 1569 (XXVIII-O/98), “The Western Hemisphere as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone.” The aforementioned resolutions call upon the Member States that have not yet done so to declare and implement moratoria on the production, use, and transfer of all antipersonnel landmines in the Western Hemisphere at the earliest possible date and to inform the secretary general when they have done so. These resolutions also request the Permanent Council, through its Committee on Hemispheric Security with support from the General Secretariat, and as a confidence- and security-building measure, to implement a complete and integrated register of antipersonnel landmines based on the information provided each year by Member States on the approximate number of antipersonnel land mines in their stockpiles, the number of antipersonnel landmines that have been removed during the past year, plans for clearance of the remaining landmines, and any other pertinent information. The Member States have also been urged to implement measures aimed at suspending the spread of antipersonnel landmines, such as stockpile destruction; and to adopt domestic legislation to prohibit the private possession and transfer of antipersonnel landmines and to inform the secretary general when they have done so.

1992: The organization created the Mine-Clearing Program in Central America in response to a request by the Central American States (Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua) affected by the presence of antipersonnel landmines. This humanitarian program seeks to reestablish citizen confidence and security and to reduce the hazard created by landmines and other unexploded war materiel.

Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE):

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The basic objectives of CICTE, as set forth in the 1998 Commitment of Mar del Plata, are to: enhance the exchange of information via the competent national authorities, including the establishment of an Inter-American database on terrorism issues; formulate proposals to assist Member States in drafting appropriate counterterrorism legislation in all states; Compile the bilateral, subregional, regional, and multilateral treaties and agreements signed by Member States and promote universal adherence to international counterterrorism conventions; enhance border cooperation and travel documentation security measures; and develop activities for training and crisis management.

2013: On 8 March, the Thirteenth Regular Session of the CICTE met in Washington, D.C.  The Session adopted the Declaration on “Strengthening of Hemispheric Cooperation to Address Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering.”

On 4-6 June, the 43rd Regular Session of the General Assembly met in La Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala.

The Assembly adopted AG/RES.2799 “Protecting Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms while Countering Terrorism.” The Resolution urges states to ensure that their counterterror strategies respect international human rights law, international humanitarian law, and international refugee law.

2012: On 7 March the Twelfth Regular Session of the CICTE met in Washington, DC and issued Declaration “Strengthening Cyber-Security in the Americas”.

2011: On 17 March, the Eleventh Regular Session of the CICTE met in Washington, DC and issued the Declaration of Renewed Hemispheric Commitment to Enhance Cooperation to Prevent, Combat, and Eliminate Terrorism.

On 5-7 June, the 41st Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly met in San Salvador, El Salvador.

AG/RES. 2618 (XLI-O/11) “Support for the work of the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism” calls upon member states to prevent, combat, and eliminate terrorism through the broadest cooperation possible.

On 28-30 November, the CICTE organized a workshop on best practices in cyber security and cybercrime in Bogota, Colombia.  They discussed “current initiatives and challenges in information sharing and coordination between domestic authorities, including national Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) and law enforcement agencies”

2010: The Tenth Regular Session of CICTE was held from 17-19 March in Washington, D.C. The agenda focused on three topics of discussion: public-private cooperation in the protection of critical infrastructure, security for major events, and public-private partnerships in maritime security. CICTE issued a Declaration on Public-Private Partnerships in the Fight Against Terrorism.

2009:  The Ninth Regular Session of CICTE was held from 4-6 March in Washington, D.C. and adopted the Declaration on Strengthening Border Controls and International Cooperation in the Fight against Terrorism.

The 39th Regular Session of the OAS General Meeting held from 2-3 June in San Pedro Sula, Honduras adopted AG/RES. 2459 “Support for the World of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism,” which condemns terrorism in all its forms, reaffirms the commitment to fighting terrorism and the financing of terrorism, endorses the Declaration on Strengthening Border Controls and International Cooperation in the Fight against Terrorism, reiterates the importance of adopting measures to strengthen international cooperation mechanism, instructs the CICTE Secretariat to implement the programs and projects approved in the CICTE Work Plan for 2009, and calls for voluntary contributions of human and financial resources.

2008: The Eighth Regular Session of CICTE was held from 5-7 March in Washington, DC, and the agenda focused on three substantive topics: cyber security, document security and fraud prevention, and port security—trade and safe transportation.

The 38th Regular Session of the OAS General Meeting held from 1-3 June in Medellin, Colombia adopted AG/RES. 2415 "Protecting Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms while Countering Terrorism" reaffirms that the fight against terrorism must be waged with full respect for the law, including the absolute prohibition of torture, and reaffirms that all member states have a duty to ensure that all measures adopted to combat terrorism are in compliance with their obligations under international law.

2007: The Seventh Regular Session of CICTE was held from 28 February – 2 March in Panama City, Panama. The main agenda item was a dialogue on critical infrastructures: policies, regulations, and hemispheric cooperation.

The 37th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly held from 3-5 June in Panama City, Panama adopted two resolutions related to terrorism: AG/RES. 2271 “Protecting Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms while Countering Terrorism” and AG/RES. 2272 “Support for the Work of the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism.”

2006: The 36th Regular Session of the OAS General Meeting held from 4-6 June in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, adopted various resolutions relating to fighting terrorism. AG/RES. 2249, “Extradition of and Denial of Safe Haven to Terrorists: Mechanisms for Cooperation in the Fight Against Terrorism”, expounds on previous resolutions. AG/RES. 2238, “Protecting Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms while Countering Terrorism” affirms that the fight against terrorism should be waged with the full respect of the law and to civil rights and due process.

2005: The 35th Regular Session of the OAS General Assembly, which met on 5-7 June in Ft. Lauderdale, adopted several resolutions related to fighting terrorism: AG/RES. 2137, “Support for the Work of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism;” AG/RES. 2145, “Denying MANPADS to Terrorists: Control and Security of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS);” and AG/RES. 2146, “Extradition of and Denial of Safe Haven to Terrorists: Mechanisms for Cooperation in the Fight Against Terrorism.”

2004: The 4th Regular Session of the CICTE was held from 28-30 January in Montevideo, Uruguay. Participants discussed their commitment to anti-terrorism efforts, and were invited to accede to the UN conventions on terrorism and ratify the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism. They approved the 2004-2005 Work Program, which includes new programs to meet security requirements in civil aviation and maritime transportation, and the Declaration of Montevideo. In the Declaration, delegates declared their renewed commitment to eliminating terrorism and urged member governments to promote legislative measures to criminalize the acts identified in the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism. They also addressed the threat posed by terrorists’ possible access to, possession, and use of weapons of mass destruction and stressed the importance of measures promoting maritime security and improved communication.  

From 12-13 February, the OAS held a Meeting of Government Experts to Exchange, from a Human Rights Perspective, Best Practices and National Experiences in Adopting Antiterrorism Measures.

On 8 June, the General Assembly passed a resolution (AG/RES. 2010 (XXXIV-O/04) adopting amendments to the Statute of the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE). These specify that the functions of the CICTE are civilian, and acknowledge that all CICTE actions should respect state sovereignty and international law. In addition, the amendments extend the CICTE’s functions and the Secretariat’s duties and aligns them with UN Security Council Resolution 1373.

In an additional resolution (AG/RES. 2051 (XXXIV-O/04)), the assembly reaffirmed its commitment to strengthening cooperation in implementing anti-terrorism measures; called upon relevant Member States to sign, ratify, or accede to and to implement the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism; and endorsed the Declaration of Montevideo.  The CICTE also held several simulation exercises and seminars in counterterrorism efforts during the year.

2003: The 3rd Regular Session of the CICTE convened in San Salvador, El Salvador from 22-24 January. Member States reaffirmed their intentions to combat terrorism and approved the Declaration of San Salvador on Strengthening Cooperation in the Fight against Terrorism, the CICTE 2003 Work Plan, and recommendations for a Special Conference on Hemispheric Security. In the declaration, they recognized the threat posed by terrorism, the link between it and illicit trafficking in drugs and arms, and work done by Member States. They urged Member States to sign, ratify, or accede to the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism and UN terrorism-related conventions and protocols, as well as other agreements, and implement UN Security Council Resolution 1373 and CICTE recommendations and to adopt domestic anti-terrorism legislation. Member States also affirmed their resolve to carry out the Work Plan and strengthen cooperation against terrorism.

During its 33rd Regular Session in June, the General Assembly adopted two resolutions regarding terrorism: AG/RES. 1931 (XXXIII-O/03) and AG/RES. 1964 (XXXIII-O/03). In the former, it reaffirmed states’ duties to combat terrorism and urged them to sign, ratify, or accede to the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism, and instructed the Permanent Council to convene a meeting regarding terrorism and human rights. In the latter, it reaffirmed its commitment to cooperation against terrorism, and endorsed the Declaration of San Salvador on Strengthening Cooperation in the Fight Against Terrorism. It also asked the CICTE to continue to facilitate dialogue on this issue, and to cooperate with various inter-American committees to combat the links between terrorism and illicit trafficking in drugs, arms, and with transnational crime.

The Inter-American Convention against Terrorism entered into force on 10 July 2003. It had been drafted in 2002 and signed by 30 Member States on 3 June of that year.

The CICTE’s first meeting of National Points of Contact convened from 14-15 July in Washington, DC. Participants discussed means of communication between various counterterrorism experts, training initiatives, and the CICTE work plan. The CICTE also held a Cyber Security Conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina in July to work on developing a global cyber-security strategy for the OAS.

On 7 October, the OAS, in conjunction with the UN Committee against Terrorism, held a meeting to address the role of regional and international organizations in counterterrorism policy.

2002: At the Second Regular Session of CICTE on 28-29 January in Washington, DC, the ministers of interior and public security and the other heads of delegations reported on the action taken by their respective nations to implement resolution RC. 23 of September 21. On January 30, policy experts from the Member States participated in a policy development role playing exercise hosted by the United States to examine possible courses of action in response to a terrorist scenario.

As a key milestone in 2002, the OAS Convention Against Terrorism was drafted and signed by the organization’s Member States at the OAS General Assembly in Bridgeton, Barbados on June 3.

CICTE established an Executive Secretariat within the OAS General Secretariat. The CICTE Secretariat was formed with individuals seconded by the governments of El Salvador, Uruguay, and the United States. The OAS secretary general appointed an Executive Secretary in October to direct the operations of the secretariat. During 2002, the Secretariat designed and deployed the CICTE On-Line Anti-terrorism Database in support of the 2002-2003 work plan. Additionally, CICTE has participated in the drafting of model regulations for the prevention of terrorist financing with OAS-CICAD’s Group of Experts. CICTE has also participated in meetings of the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF) and the United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC).

2001: The events of 11 September brought renewed focus to inter-American efforts to confront terrorism. The attacks were immediately condemned by the General Assembly, which coincidentally was meeting in Special Session in Lima, Peru to approve the Inter-American Democratic Charter. This was followed by the resolution “Strengthening Cooperation to Prevent, Combat, and Eliminate Terrorism” (RC.23/RES.1/01) adopted by the 23rd Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs September 21, 2001 in Washington, DC.

This resolution included among other items the following issues pertinent to CICTE: a call upon all Member States to strengthen cooperation, at the regional and international levels, to pursue, capture, prosecute, and punish and, as appropriate, to expedite the extradition of the perpetrators, organizers, and sponsors of these terrorist acts, strengthen mutual legal assistance, and exchange information in a timely manner. It also instructed the Permanent Council to convoke, as soon as possible, a meeting of the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism so that it may identify urgent actions aimed at strengthening inter-American cooperation to prevent, combat, and eliminate terrorism in the hemisphere; and entrusted the Permanent Council with preparing a draft Inter-American Convention against Terrorism with a view to presenting it to the next session of the OAS General Assembly. In addition, the resolution urged the states to study the international legal repercussions of the conduct of government authorities who provide financial support to, protect, or harbor terrorist individuals or groups.

In light of these and subsequent resolutions of the organs of the Inter-American system, CICTE held two special sessions on 15 October and 29 November. Between these sessions, three subcommittees (Financial Controls, Border Controls, and Work Plan) worked diligently to identify counter-terrorism actions for OAS Member States to implement at the multi-lateral, regional, sub-regional, and national levels and to draft an agenda for CICTE to pursue in 2002-2003.

2000: A second regular session planned for Bolivia in 2000 had to be canceled at the last moment. No session was scheduled in 2001.

1999: The General Assembly endorsed the recommendations and decisions contained in the Commitment of Mar Del Plata, which was adopted in 1998, and established CICTE by resolution AG/RES. 1650(XXIX-O/99).

The first regular session of CICTE was held in Miami, Florida in October, where a plan of work was developed.

1998: The Second Specialized Conference on Terrorism held in Mar del Plata, Argentina on 23-24 November was concluded with the adoption of the Commitment of Mar del Plata. That commitment called for establishing within the Organization of American States an “Inter-American Committee against Terrorism” composed of “competent national authorities” of the Member States. This effort was further endorsed by the Heads of State of the hemisphere in the Plan of Action of the Second Summit of the Americas in Santiago, Chile.

Point of Contact:

Secretary General: José Miguel Insulza

OAS Secretariat:
17th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20006
USA

Tel: (202) 458–3000

E-Mail: pi@oas.org
Website: http://www.oas.org/

Table of Contents:
About

OAS consists of 35 independent states of the Americas who seek to establish and maintain peace and justice, promote solidarity, strengthen collaboration, and defend their sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence.

This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, or agents. Copyright 2017.