Fact Sheet

Nuclear Disarmament United States

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Nuclear Disarmament United States

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NPT Nuclear Weapons State

Arsenal Size

Total Stockpile

  • Approximately 4,670 warheads (military stockpile) [1]
  • Active or operational warheads: 1,930 (1,750 strategic, 180 non-strategic warheads deployed in Europe) [2]
  • Warheads in storage (hedge against technical or geopolitical surprises): Approximately 2,740 [3]
  • Retired intact warheads awaiting dismantlement: Approximately 2,300 [4]
  • Total inventory: Approximately 6,970 [5]

Key Weapon Systems

Strategic
  • 440 ICBMs (Minuteman III/ MK 12 A, MK 21/SERV) [6]
  • 288 SLBMs (Trident II D5/ MK-4, MK-4A, MK-5) [7]
  • 113 Strategic bombers (B-52H Stratofortress, B2A Spirit) [8]
Non-strategic
  • 500 B61 bombs [9]

Estimated Destructive Force

  • Operational warheads: approximately 570 megatons [10]

Military Fissile Material Stockpile

  • Military stockpile of plutonium: 38.3 mt (declared military excess: 49.3 mt) [11]
  • Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU): 253 mt [12]

Disarmament and Commitments to Reduce Arsenal Size

  • Legal obligation to pursue global disarmament under Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). [13]
  • Under the New START treaty that entered into force on 5 February 2011, the United States and Russia agreed to reduce their deployed strategic warheads to no more than 1,550 each; to deploy no more than 700 ICBMs, SLBMs and heavy bombers; and to limit ICBM launchers, SLBM launchers and heavy bombers to no more than 800 whether deployed or not. [14] As a result of these reductions, the United States currently has its smallest nuclear stockpile since 1956. [15]
  • Under the New START treaty, the United States has reportedly reduced its arsenal by 263 strategic warheads and 120 launchers. It has reduced deployed nuclear forces, including eight ICBMs and three bombers. The Air Force has begun destroying empty ICBM silos, and the Navy is decreasing the number of missile tubes on its SSBNs. [16]
  • Dismantled 10,251 nuclear warheads from FY 1994 through 2014. [17]
  • Reduced by 85% the largest U.S. stockpile of 31,255 warheads in 1967 to the current stockpile of 4,760 operational and reserved warheads. [18]
  • Dismantled more than 13,000 warheads since 1988. [19]
  • Reduced operationally-deployed strategic nuclear weapons from approximately 10,000 in 1991 to 1,930 as of 2016. [20]
  • Unilaterally reduced non-strategic warheads by 90% from 1967 to 2009. [21]
  • Eliminated more than 1,000 launchers for strategic ballistic missiles, 350 heavy bombers and 28 ballistic missile submarines. [22]
  • Completed the downloading of its ICBM force to single warhead configuration in June 2014. [23]
  • Completed W79 Artillery-Fired Atomic Projectile dismantlement in 2003. [24]
  • Completed W56 warhead dismantlement in 2006. [25]
  • Removed 374 tons of highly enriched uranium and almost 61.5 tons of plutonium from the weapons inventory. [26] Down-blended 146 metric tons of the removed highly enriched uranium thus far. Removed 61.5 metric tons from use in nuclear warheads in 1994 and 2007. [27]
  • U.S. and Russia brought the Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement into force on 11 July 2011, requiring each country to eliminate 34 metric tons of excess weapons-grade plutonium. [28]
  • Completed retirement of remaining nuclear Tomahawk land-attack cruise missiles (TLAM/Ns) and their W80-0 warheads. The U.S. inventory of nonstrategic nuclear weapons now includes only B61 gravity bombs. [29]
Future Commitments
  • Washington has expressed support for a nuclear-free world, but has also committed to maintaining an arsenal for deterrence and defense as long as nuclear weapons exist. [30]
  • The United States intends to pursue "up to a one-third reduction" in the deployed strategic warheads permitted under the New START treaty and seeks a reduction in non-strategic nuclear weapons. [31] The United States aims to complete some planned reductions by 2018. [32]
  • The United States Air Force plans to remove 50 Minuteman missiles from silos by 2018 in compliance with the New START treaty's limit on operational launchers. However, the United States will keep these missiles in storage with the potential to be reloaded. [33]
  • Under the New START treaty, the United States Air Force will pursue the elimination of 104 empty ICBM silos. These projects began in February 2014 with the final silo destructions planned for 2017. [34] The United States Air Force will also pursue the reduction of the ICBM force to 400 missiles by 2018. The missiles will be moved to storage rather than destroyed. [35]
  • The United States Navy intends to pursue the reduction of deployed SLBMs to 240 by 2018. In order to do this the United States plans to reduce the number of missile tubes on every nuclear missile submarine from 24 to 20 in 2015 and 2016. [36]
  • The United States aims to reduce its bomber force to 60 nuclear-capable aircraft by 2018. [37]
  • The United States is seeking a new treaty to verifiably end the production of fissile materials for use in nuclear weapons. [38]
  • The United States plans to pursue discussions with Russia on reducing strategic, non-strategic, deployed, and non-deployed nuclear weapons. [39]
  • The P5 (NPT NWS) have been meeting annually since 2009 to review the progress toward the fulfillment of their NPT Article VI obligation of nuclear disarmament. [40]

Nuclear Weapons Policy

Nuclear Testing
  • Observed nuclear testing moratorium since 1992. [41]
  • Signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996. [42]
  • Under the Obama Administration, pledged that the United States will pursue ratification of the CTBT. [43]
  • Signed the PTBT in 1963 (banning nuclear tests in atmosphere, outer space, and under water). [44]
Use of Nuclear Weapons
  • Will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against NPT Non-nuclear Weapon States (NNWS) that are in compliance with their nuclear nonproliferation obligations. (2010 U.S. Nuclear Posture Review) [45]
  • Retains first-use option [46]
  • Provides Negative Security Assurances to NWFZ treaty members: Committed not to use nuclear weapons against members of Tlatelolco NWFZ. Promised to ratify protocols to Rarotonga and Pelindaba treaties. [47] Signed the protocol to the Central Asia NWFZ treaty in May 2014 and submitted it to the Senate for ratification in April 2015. [48] Submitted the protocol to the Rarotonga (South Pacific) and Pelindaba (Africa) treaties to the Senate for ratification in May 2011. [49]
  • Supports the establishment of a Middle East WMD-free zone as outlined in the 2010 NPT Review Conference Action Plan. However, the United States did not agree to the proposed language about a regional conference to discuss such a zone. [50]
  • Acknowledged the commitments of the NWS to negative security assurances in UN Security Council Resolution 984 (1995). [51]

Sources:
[1] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "United States Nuclear Forces, 2016," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 72:2, 63-73, 2016, www.thebulletin.org.
[2] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "United States Nuclear Forces, 2016," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 72:2, 63-73, 2016, www.thebulletin.org.
[3] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "United States Nuclear Forces, 2016," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 72:2, 63-73, 2016, www.thebulletin.org.
[4] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "United States Nuclear Forces, 2016," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 72:2, 63-73, 2016, www.thebulletin.org.
[5] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "United States Nuclear Forces, 2016," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 72:2, 63-73, 2016, www.thebulletin.org.
[6] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[7] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[8] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[9] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[10] Based on communication with Mr. Hans Kristensen. ICNND Report "Eliminating Nuclear Threats," says 647 megatons, www.icnnd.org.
[11] International Panel on Fissile Material, "Global Fissile Material Report 2015: Nuclear weapons and fissile material stockpiles and production," International Panel on Fissile Material, 8 May 2015, https://fissilematerials.org.
[12] International Panel on Fissile Material, "Global Fissile Material Report 2015: Nuclear weapons and fissile material stockpiles and production," International Panel on Fissile Material, 8 May 2015, https://fissilematerials.org.
[13] Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, U.S. Department of State, www.state.gov.
[14] Inventory of International Nonproliferation Organizations & Regimes, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, www.nonproliferation.org.
[15] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[16] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "United States Nuclear Forces, 2016," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 72:2, 63-73, 2016, www.thebulletin.org.
[17] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[18] Fact Sheet Increasing Transparency in the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile, U.S. Department of Defense, www.defense.gov; Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[19] Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: Promoting Disarmament, U.S. Department of State, www.state.gov.
[20] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "United States Nuclear Forces, 2016," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 72:2, 2016, www.thebulletin.org.
Note: the number of operational warheads in this statement is counted by New START standards, which count each bomber as one nuclear warhead although bombers can carry up to 20 warheads if loaded. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: Promoting Disarmament, Bureau of Public Affairs Fact Sheet, U.S. Department of State, 25 March 2011, www.state.gov; Hans M. Kristensen, "Second Batch of New START Data," Federation of American Scientists Strategic Security Blog, 1 June 2012, www.fas.org.
[21] Ambassador Laura Kennedy, U.S. Statement: Cluster 1, First Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2015 NPT Review Conference, 3 May 2012, www.vienna.usmission.gov.
[22] Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: Promoting Disarmament, U.S. Department of State, www.state.gov.
[23] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[24] Bryan Wilkes, "NNSA Dismantles Last Nuclear Artillery Shell," National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, 12 December 2003, https://nnsa.energy.gov.
[25] Press Release "NNSA Dismantles Entire Stock of W56 Nuclear Weapons," National Nuclear Security Administration, 29 June 2006, www.nnsa.energy.gov.
[26] Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: Promoting Disarmament, U.S. Department of State, www.state.gov.
[27] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[28] Ambassador Laura Kennedy, U.S. Statement: Cluster 1, First Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2015 NPT Review Conference, 3 May 2012, www.vienna.usmission.gov.
[29] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2014," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 70 (1), Jan/Feb 2014, https://thebulletin.org.
[30] Remarks by President Barack Obama, Prague, Czech Republic, 5 April 2009, www.whitehouse.gov.
[31] Remarks by President Obama, Berlin, Germany, 19 June 2013, www.whitehouse.gov.
[32] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[33] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[34] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[35] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[36] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[37] Hans M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris, "US Nuclear Forces, 2015," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Volume 71 (2), March/April 2015, www.thebulletin.org.
[38] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[39] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[40] Rose Gottemoeller, "Moving the Prague Agenda Forward," Speech at the Arms Control Association Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 4 June 2012, www.state.gov.
[41] "Nuclear Testing," Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), www.ctbto.org.
[42] "Status of Signature and Ratification," Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), www.ctbto.org.
[43] Remarks by President Barack Obama, Prague, Czech Republic, 5 April 2009, www.whitehouse.gov: "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[44] Inventory of International Nonproliferation Organizations & Regimes, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, www.nonproliferation.org.
[45] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[46] Nuclear Posture Review Report, U.S. Department of Defense, April 2010, www.defense.gov.
[47] "Security Assurances," Statement by Ambassador Robert A. Wood, United States Delegation to the Conference on Disarmament, 6 May 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[48] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[49] "Security Assurances," Statement by Ambassador Robert A. Wood, United States Delegation to the Conference on Disarmament, 6 May 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[50] "Report of the United States of America Pursuant to Actions 5, 20, 21 of the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference Final Document," Report by the U.S. Delegation to the 2015 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference, United States Department of State, 27 April 2015, www.reachingcriticalwill.org.
[51] International Organizations and Nonproliferation Program (IONP), "Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone (NWFZ) Clearinghouse," James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, www.nonproliferation.org.

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Glossary

Tactical nuclear weapons
Short-range nuclear weapons, such as artillery shells, bombs, and short-range missiles, deployed for use in battlefield operations.
Dismantlement
Dismantlement: Taking apart a weapon, facility, or other item so that it is no longer functional.
Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM): A ballistic missile with a range greater than 5,500 km. See entry for ballistic missile.
Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)
SLBM: A ballistic missile that is carried on and launched from a submarine.
Strategic Bomber
Strategic Bomber: A long-range aircraft designed to drop large amounts of explosive power—either conventional or nuclear—on enemy territory.
Megaton (MT)
Megaton (MT): The energy equivalent released by 1,000 kilotons (1,000,000 tons) of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. Typically used as the unit of measurement to express the amount of energy released by a nuclear bomb.
Plutonium (Pu)
Plutonium (Pu): A transuranic element with atomic number 94, produced when uranium is irradiated in a reactor. It is used primarily in nuclear weapons and, along with uranium, in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel. Plutonium-239, a fissile isotope, is the most suitable isotope for use in nuclear weapons.
Highly enriched uranium (HEU)
Highly enriched uranium (HEU): Refers to uranium with a concentration of more than 20% of the isotope U-235. Achieved via the process of enrichment. See entry for enriched uranium.
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
The NPT: Signed in 1968, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the most widely adhered-to international security agreement. The “three pillars” of the NPT are nuclear disarmament, nonproliferation, and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Article VI of the NPT commits states possessing nuclear weapons to negotiate in good faith toward halting the arms race and the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. The Treaty stipulates that non-nuclear-weapon states will not seek to acquire nuclear weapons, and will accept International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on their nuclear activities, while nuclear weapon states commit not to transfer nuclear weapons to other states. All states have a right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and should assist one another in its development. The NPT provides for conferences of member states to review treaty implementation at five-year intervals. Initially of a 25-year duration, the NPT was extended indefinitely in 1995. For additional information, see the NPT.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I, II, & III)
Refers to negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union/Russian Federation, held between 1982 and 1993 to limit and reduce the numbers of strategic offensive nuclear weapons in each country’s nuclear arsenal. The talks culminated in the 1991 START I Treaty, which entered into force in December 1994, and the 1993 START II Treaty. Although START II was ratified by the two countries, it never entered into force. In 1997, U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin discussed the possibility of a START III treaty to make further weapons reductions, but negotiations resulted in a stalemate. Following the U.S. withdrawal from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) in 2002, Russia declared START II void. START I expired on 5 December 2009, and was followed by the New START treaty. See entries for New START and the Trilateral Statement. For additional information, see the entries for START I, START II, and New START
Dismantlement
Dismantlement: Taking apart a weapon, facility, or other item so that it is no longer functional.
Ballistic missile
A delivery vehicle powered by a liquid or solid fueled rocket that primarily travels in a ballistic (free-fall) trajectory.  The flight of a ballistic missile includes three phases: 1) boost phase, where the rocket generates thrust to launch the missile into flight; 2) midcourse phase, where the missile coasts in an arc under the influence of gravity; and 3) terminal phase, in which the missile descends towards its target.  Ballistic missiles can be characterized by three key parameters - range, payload, and Circular Error Probable (CEP), or targeting precision.  Ballistic missiles are primarily intended for use against ground targets.
Fissile material
Fissile material: A type of fissionable material capable of sustaining a chain reaction by undergoing fission upon the absorption of low-energy (or thermal) neutrons. Uranium-235, Plutonium-239, and Uranium-233 are the most prominently discussed fissile materials for peaceful and nuclear weapons purposes.
P-5
P-5: The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council: China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)
The CTBT: Opened for signature in 1996 at the UN General Assembly, the CTBT prohibits all nuclear testing if it enters into force. The treaty establishes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to ensure the implementation of its provisions and verify compliance through a global monitoring system upon entry into force. Pending the treaty’s entry into force, the Preparatory Commission of the CTBTO is charged with establishing the International Monitoring System (IMS) and promoting treaty ratifications. CTBT entry into force is contingent on ratification by 44 Annex II states. For additional information, see the CTBT.
Ratification
Ratification: The implementation of the formal process established by a country to legally bind its government to a treaty, such as approval by a parliament. In the United States, treaty ratification requires approval by the president after he or she has received the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate. Following ratification, a country submits the requisite legal instrument to the treaty’s depository governments Procedures to ratify a treaty follow its signature.

See entries for Entry into force and Signature.
Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT)
The PTBT: Also known as the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion" in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. While the treaty does not ban tests underground, it does prohibit nuclear explosions in this environment if they cause "radioactive debris to be present outside the territorial limits of the State under whose jurisdiction or control" the explosions were conducted. The treaty is of unlimited duration. For additional information, see the PTBT.
Non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS)
Non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS): Under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), NNWS are states that had not detonated a nuclear device prior to 1 January 1967, and who agree in joining the NPT to refrain from pursuing nuclear weapons (that is, all state parties to the NPT other than the United States, the Soviet Union/Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China).
First-use
The introduction of nuclear weapons, or other weapons of mass destruction, into a conflict. In agreeing to a "no-first-use" policy, a country states that it will not use nuclear weapons first, but only under retaliatory circumstances. See entry for No-First-Use
Negative security assurances
A pledge by a nuclear weapon state that it will not use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear weapon state. Some states have policies that allow for the use of nuclear weapons if attacked with other WMD by a non-nuclear weapon state. See entry for Positive security assurances
Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ)
NWFZ: A geographical area in which nuclear weapons may not legally be built, possessed, transferred, deployed, or tested.
Treaty of Tlatelolco
The Treaty of Tlatelolco: This treaty, opened for signature in February 1967, created a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Treaty of Tlatelolco was the first international agreement that aimed to exclude nuclear weapons from an inhabited region of the globe. The member states accept the application of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on all their nuclear activities. The treaty also establishes a regional organization, the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL), to supervise treaty implementation and ensure compliance with its provisions. For additional information, see the LANWFZ.
Treaty of Rarotonga
Treaty of Rarotonga: The Treaty on the South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (SPNWFZ) prohibits the testing, manufacturing, acquiring, and stationing of nuclear explosive devices on any member's territory. The treaty also prohibits the dumping of radioactive wastes into the sea. In addition, the treaty required all parties to apply International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to all their peaceful nuclear activities. For additional information, see the SPNWFZ.
Treaty of Pelindaba
Treaty of Pelindaba: The Treaty on the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone was opened for signature in Cairo in April 1996. The treaty prohibits the research, development, manufacturing, stockpiling, acquisition, testing, possession, control, and stationing of nuclear explosive devices on any member’s territory. The treaty also prohibits the dumping of radioactive waste originating from outside the continent within the region. In addition, the treaty requires parties to apply International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards to all their peaceful nuclear activities. The treaty also provides for the establishment of the African Commission on Nuclear Energy (AFCONE), which supervises treaty implementation and ensures compliance with its provisions. For additional information, see the ANWFZ.
Central Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (CANWFZ)
The Central Asia Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zone (CANWFZ) includes all five Central Asian states: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The foreign ministers of the five countries signed the treaty establishing the zone on 8 September 2006 at the former Soviet nuclear test site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan. The treaty entered into force on 21 March 2009. For additional information, see the CANWFZ.
Nuclear-weapon states (NWS)
NWS: As defined by Article IX, paragraph 3 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the five states that detonated a nuclear device prior to 1 January 1967 (China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Coincidentally, these five states are also permanent members of the UN Security Council. States that acquired and/or tested nuclear weapons subsequently are not internationally recognized as nuclear-weapon states.
United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council: Under the United Nations Charter, the Security Council has primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. The Council consists of fifteen members, five of which—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States—are permanent members. The other ten members are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. The five permanent members possess veto powers. For additional information, see the UNSC.

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