The Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group (SHIG) is responsible for Iran’s ballistic missile programs, including the Shahab-3 and Ghadr missiles. 1 In 1997, U.S. satellites picked up a heat signature of a Shahab-3 missile engine close to SHIG’s research facility. 2
SHIG has been cooperating with entities in Russia, China, North Korea and potentially Ukraine. 3 SHIG is a target of UN and U.S. sanctions, and the United States has also sanctioned several Chinese and North Korean entities for their involvement with SHIG. 4 Additionally, the U.S. Department of the Treasury froze the assets of Naser Maleki, the head of SHIG, pursuant to Executive Order 13382. 5
- Ballistic missile
- A delivery vehicle powered by a liquid or solid fueled rocket that primarily travels in a ballistic (free-fall) trajectory. The flight of a ballistic missile includes three phases: 1) boost phase, where the rocket generates thrust to launch the missile into flight; 2) midcourse phase, where the missile coasts in an arc under the influence of gravity; and 3) terminal phase, in which the missile descends towards its target. Ballistic missiles can be characterized by three key parameters - range, payload, and Circular Error Probable (CEP), or targeting precision. Ballistic missiles are primarily intended for use against ground targets.
- Punitive measures, for example economic in nature, implemented in response to a state's violation of its international obligations.
- “Testimony of Pat O’Brien, Assistant Secretary, Office of Terrorist Financing and Financial Crimes, U.S. Department of the Treasury, before the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs,” Washington, DC, 22 June 2006, www.ustreas.gov; “Iran said to sharpen nuclear program – exile group contends better missile with longer range in works,” The Boston Globe, 3 December 2004, www.boston.com/bostonglobe; “Hemmet Industrial Complex,” GlobalSecurity.org.
- Dinshaw Mistry, Containing Missile Proliferation: Strategic Technology, Security Regimes, and International Cooperation in Arms Control (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005), p. 143.
- Bill Gertz, “Russia Disregards Pledge to Curb Iran Missile Output; Tehran, Moscow Sign Pacts for Additional Support,” Washington Times, 22 May 1997, www.washingtontimes.com.
- In 2003, the United States sanctioned the Chinese conglomerate Norinco for supplying missile technology to SHIG. In February 2009, the U.S. Treasury Department sanctioned a North Korean company for its involvement with SHIG. In March 2009, missile experts from SHIG reportedly visited North Korea to help Pyongyang prepare for a rocket test launch. “Chinese Proliferation will Continue for a Strategic Few,” Stratfor, 18 February 2004, www.stratfor.com; Jung Sung-ki and Michael Ha, “Obama Imposes Sanctions on NK Firms,” Korea Times, 4 February 2009, www.koreatimes.co.kr.
- “Treasury Designates Iranian Proliferation Individuals, Entities,” U.S. Department of the Treasury, 8 July 2008, www.ustreas.gov.