10 Plus 10 Over 10 Program
Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction ("10 Plus 10 Over 10 Program")
The Partnership is a formal multilateral nonproliferation initiative created by the G-8 countries in 2002. G-8 countries fund and implement projects to prevent terrorists and other proliferators from acquiring WMDs.
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- Signed: 27 June 2002
On 27 June 2002, during the 2002 Summit, the G8 (the seven major industrial countries plus Russia) issued a statement outlining a new initiative, entitled the “Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction.” The Partnership committed to raise up to $20 billion over a period of 10 years through the “10 plus 10 over 10” initiative. The initiative, agreed to at the G8 summit in Kananaskis, Canada, called for the United States to contribute $10 billion, and the other original G-7 nations, a combined $10 billion, to fund nonproliferation projects, and in particular, assist Russia, as well as, other nations to destroy their stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Throughout the Summits, G8 leaders met and produce statements, declarations and Action Plans to strengthen the nonproliferation regime. Due to the success of the Summits, the Partnership was renewed in 2011. Up to 2014, the G8 decided to establish a senior-level mechanism to coordinate Global Partnership activities, including monitoring progress and identifying priorities. Furthermore, Russian President Putin agreed to provide contributing States the same privileges it accords the United States, namely access to sites, tax exemptions, and liability protection.
However, in March 2014, due to the Russian annexation of Crimea, the leaders of the G-7 met and collectively decided to expel Russia from the Group of 8 as a punitive measure.
Slow progress has been made in collecting funding commitments from countries. In addition there is still no coordinating mechanism or clear plan for moving forward.
On 18 April, the G7 Finance Ministers released a joint statement condemning the nuclear and ballistic missile programs of North Korea. They committed to continue imposing maximum economic pressure. The statement specifically highlighted North Korea’s continued illicit financial activity, such as the use of front and shell companies to skirt UNSCRs.
On 22-23 April, the G7 Non-Proliferation Directors’ Group met in Charlevoix, Canada to discuss the changing global security environment. In a joint communique, the group condemned the use of chemical weapons in Syria and in Salisbury, United Kingdom. The communique also criticized Iranian ballistic missile tests and ongoing North Korean nuclear and ballistic missile development.
At the meeting, the G7 ministers agreed to set up a working group that will address “Russian malign behavior in all its manifestations,” according to British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson. The group also discussed any potential side agreements that could address US President Donald Trump’s concerns about “terrible flaws” in the 2015 Iran Deal.
On 10-11 April, the G7 Foreign Ministers met in Lucca, Italy. The meeting focused on the April 4 chemical attack in which the Syrian Government allegedly bombarded the rebel-held Syrian town of Khan Sheikhoun with munitions containing nerve agents. The foreign ministers, however, failed to reach consensus on a response to the attack, as divisions arose over the application of fresh sanctions against Russia.
On 26-27 May, the G7 Summit was held in Taorminia, Sicily where leaders issued a joint statement upon its conclusion. The statement exposed emerging rifts over climate change, as it highlighted the United States unwillingness to reaffirm its commitment to the Paris Agreement while the other six members reinforced their participation in the climate pact. The statement, however, expressed unanimous condemnation of North Korea’s nuclear tests and ballistic missile launches as well as threatened further restrictive measures against Russia if it does not comply with obligations under the Minsk Agreement.
On 11-12 June, the G7 Environment Ministers convened in Bologna, Italy for the group’s annual meeting on the environment and climate change, which came on the heels of the U.S. Government’s declaration to withdraw from the Paris Agreement. Scott Pruitt, the head of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, only attended the first day of the two-day summit before returning to Washington D.C. His early departure together with the refusal of the U,S, to endorse a Paris agreement pledge in the final communiqué further exposed the widening gulf over climate change.
On 31 March, the Global Partnership released a statement at the Nuclear Security Summit. The Partnership reiterated its commitment to strengthening nuclear and radiological security, as well as preventing non-state actors from acquiring WMDs.
On 31 March Yasuhisa Kawamura, spokesman for Japanese PM Shinzo Abe, announced that the upcoming G7 summit in Japan should focus on the weak global economy, global terrorism, the Russia/Ukraine crisis, and the DPRK’s nuclear ambitions.
On 26-27 May, the G7 Summit was held in Ise-Shima, Japan where leaders issued a declaration upon its conclusion. In the declaration, concern was expressed over the OPCW’s findings in Syria, the G7’s support of the full and effective implementation of the JCPOA and its condemnation of North Korea’s nuclear test in January along with its subsequent launches using ballistic missile technology. They also endorsed the G7 Foreign Ministers’ Hiroshima Declaration on Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation and the State of the G7 Non-Proliferation Directors Group on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament.
On 9 February, the G7 leaders and the EU adopted additional restrictive measures and sanctions against Russia.
On 15 April, the G7 foreign ministers met in Lübeck, Germany. During the meeting, the ministers reaffirmed their support to the three pillars of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). The ministers welcomed the efforts on resolving issues with Iran’s nuclear program and furthermore, condemned North Korea’s continued development of its nuclear and ballistic missile programs. The G7 also reaffirmed their policy of non-recognition and sanctions concerning Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea.
On 7-8 June, the G7 Summit was held in Schloss Elmau, Germany. The leaders of the G7 issued a declaration. In the declaration, the leaders addressed the report of the G7 Nuclear Safety and Security Group (NSSG) and other nonproliferation issues, including the importance of Arms Trade Treaty, the ongoing Iran nuclear deal negotiations, and the North Korea nuclear issue.
On 25-26 June, Ambassador Bonnie Jenkins led a U.S. interagency delegation to Ukraine to discuss the G7 efforts in bio-security, bio-safety, and nuclear/radiological security in Ukraine. This engagement was led by Germany and included several other Global Partnership members.
On 1 January, as President of the 2014 G8 Summit, the Russian President Vladimir Putin delivered a statement indicating “Risk Management for Sustainable Growth in a Safe World” as the motto for the G8 Summit.
On 24 March, on the sidelines of the Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, Netherlands, the leaders of the G-7 met for the first time since the Crimea region conflict in Ukraine had begun. Collectively they made the decision to expel Russia from the Group of 8 as a punitive measure for its annexation of Crimea. The G-7 countries decided not to impose economic sanctions at the time, but threatened tougher sanctions if Putin’s government continued to pursue an aggressive policy in the region.
From 4-5 June, the G-7 leaders, boycotted the G8 Sochi Summit, and instead met in Brussels and issued a Summit Declaration. The G-7 leaders expressed deep concern over the tensions in the South China Sea dispute in East Asia and reiterated their intention to promote peaceful nuclear energy. The leaders reaffirmed their commitment to a successful conclusion on the Iranian nuclear program talks, strongly condemned North Korea’s continued development of nuclear weaponry, and asserted their strict policy of non-recognition with respect to Crimea/Sevastopol, stating their readiness to “intensify targeted sanctions and to implement significant additional restrictive measures” against Russia.
The G-7 leaders also issued the Declaration on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament for 2014, in which they reaffirmed that preventing the proliferation of WMD and their means of delivery are a top priority for the group.
On 5 June, U.S. President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron officially alerted Russia of the one month left to comply with the conditions set down unanimously by the G-7 leaders. The three conditions that the G-7 developed were: the recognition of Petro Poroshenko’s election as the new president of Ukraine, the halt of arms from crossing the Ukrainian-Russian border, and uncontinued support of Putin for pro-Russian separatist groups located in eastern Ukraine.
In July, in response to the escalating situation between Ukraine and Russia, the G7 leaders and the EU decided to extend their sanctions against Russia, including, and certain sectors of Russia’s economy.
In September, the US President Barack Obama expressed the willingness to join the EU in imposing tougher sanctions on Russia’s financial, energy and defense sectors, after Moscow sent troops into eastern Ukraine in August.
In December, the G7 representative and the EU banned investments in Crimea, hoping to keep up pressure on Russia over its role in Ukraine.
On 10-11 April, the G8 Foreign Ministers met in London. The ministers discussed many topics including the situation in Syria, the Arms Trade Treaty’s adoption, the threat of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, outer space security, and the establishment of a WMD Free-Zone in the Middle East, Iran, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK).
The ministers expressed their concern about events occurring in Syria and support for the UN-led investigation into the alleged use of chemical weapons in Syria. The United Kingdom, United States, and France held separate talks with the Syrian National Coalition ahead of the G8 foreign ministers meeting, where they discussed how to best provide practical support to achieve a political solution to the ongoing conflict.
The ministers also discussed the recent provocations made by the DPRK, condemned its actions and pledging to take “further significant measures” if the country conducted another missile launch or nuclear test. The ministers supported strengthening the sanctions regime against the DPRK while urging the country to engage in multilateral talks.
On 17-18 June the G8 convened in Lough Erne, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The main outcome was the statement issued by the G8 concerning the use of chemical weapons in Syria, calling on all parties to all access to the investigating team mandated by the UN Secretary General.
On 18-19 May, the G8 summit convened at Camp David, Maryland, USA. The G8 also called on Iran and North Korea to scale back on its nuclear weapons, encouraged Iran to comply with its obligations to the NPT, and reaffirmed its commitment to nonproliferation and disarmament.
The G8 NSSG issued a report that focused on Nuclear Safety in the Aftermath of the Fukushima Accident and welcomed the risk and safety assessment of nuclear installations conducted in G8 countries. It also endorsed the IAEA Action Plan and the Enhancement of Safety and Security Framework.
On 26-27 May, France hosted the G8 summit in Deauville. Due to past successes of the G8 Global Partnership, the leaders of the summit decided to renew the Partnership, which was set to expire in 2012.
During the Summit discussions focused around topics from previous summits such as nuclear and radiological security, biosecurity, scientists’ engagement and the implementation of the U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540 (UNSCR 1540). However, after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, particular focus was given over nuclear safety. These issues, among other commitments to promote nonproliferation, were reflected in the Dauville G8 Declaration.
The G8 leaders also expressed their continued commitment in completing the “priority projects” in Russia, such as destroying the nation’s chemical weapons stockpile.
While G8 leaders discussed expansion of the partnership no specific countries were mentioned as potential candidates. Lastly, the G8 nations pledged to collect $20 billion over the next decade to eliminate threats presented by unconventional weapons, with a particular focus on former Soviet Union states, as well as Russia’s decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines. To this end, Russia pledged to contribute $2 billion, the U.S. $10 billion, other G8 states $7.5 billion, and the remaining $1.42 billion from other nations and the European Union.
In March, the G8 Research Group produced the 2009 L’Aquila G8 Summit Interim Compliance Report, which indicated the progress made by each G8 State in the areas of: countering chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear terrorism (CBRN), among others. According to the report, Canada, France, Russia, the United States, and the European Union have provided financial and/or technical support towards CRBN threat reduction initiatives; while, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom have provided partial financial and/or technical support.
On 30 March, the G8 foreign ministers met in Gatineau, Canada to discuss security issues and concluded by issuing the “G8 Statement on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Disarmament, and Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.” In this statement they reaffirmed the Partnership’s previous commitments, while reiterating their serious concerns over Iran’s nuclear program and the DPRK’s nuclear weapons program.
On 25-26 June, Canada hosted the annual G8 Summit in the region of Muskoka. G8 members reported on the progress made through the Partnership in addressing the human dimension of proliferation through the funding projects that engaged former WMD scientists or scientists with WMD-related expertise in the development of sustainable civilian research and other activities.
The American and Russian Presidents informed the G8 leaders of their signature to the Protocol amending the 2000 Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement, in which each country commits to dispose 34 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. Through the Global Partnership, additional radiation detection equipment will be placed throughout Russia and Ukraine.
At the conclusion of the meeting, the “Report on the G-8 Global Partnership 2010” was released. It conveyed the progress made towards destroying chemical weapons, including the destruction, as of December 2009, of 45% of Russia’s chemical weapons stockpile. It also identified 2012 as the year for the completion of Russia’s submarine dismantlement.
Lastly, expansion of the Partnership’s membership continued to remain a priority.
On 16-17 April, Italy, as President of the G8, hosted a conference in Rome on “Overcoming Nuclear Dangers.” By the end of the conference Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini, Mikhail Gorbachev, and George Shultz issued a joint statement calling nations to join the “movement towards a nuclear weapon-free world.”
On 18-20 May, the Global Partnership funded and organized the 1st Annual Conference of the Biosafety Association for Central Asia and the Caucasus in Almaty, Kazakhstan. During the conference, biosafety risk assessments, proliferation concerns, and methods for reducing the spread of disease were discussed.
On 26 June, at a G8 meeting in Italy, Canada announced an additional $180 million contribution, to $10 million contribution pledged at the beginning of January towards the Global Partnership.
On 8-10 July, Italy hosted the 2009 G8 Summit in L’Alquila. Members discussed issues on: the economic crisis, poverty, climate change, and other international issues.
During the Summit, the G8 members issued the “L’Aquila Statement on Non-Proliferation” statement. Under the statement, the G8 members continued to support previous Summit statements. The statement identified the CTBT as one of the principal instruments of the international security architecture and a key measure of nonproliferation and disarmament; and, called upon all States to fully implement UNSCR 1540 and subscribe to the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC). Members also pledged their support for the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), and Biological Weapons Convention (BWC).
Members also reaffirmed their commitment to improve nuclear safety and acknowledged the progress achieved since the last G8 Summit in ongoing projects at the Chernobyl site, while reasserting their commitment to undertake joint efforts with Ukraine to work towards converting the site to a stable and environmentally safe condition.
The G8 members also agreed to adopt new rules for sensitive nuclear exports. The rules originated from a 2008 Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) drafted document, which outlined specific criteria for non-nuclear weapon States to fulfill before being eligible to receive exports related to uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing. Each G8 member committed “to implement this text on a national basis in the next year.”
Apart from strongly condemning the DPRK nuclear test conducted on 25 May 2009, the G8 leaders urged the DPRK to resume the Six Party talks as early as possible. They also reaffirmed their commitments in finding a diplomatic solution to Iran’s continued failure to comply with its international obligations.
Discussions on future Global Partnership membership included possible expansion of CIS countries.
On 26 August, the Global Partnership assisted Russia in transporting two Victory Class nuclear submarines from Kamchatka Krai to Promorsky Krai for dismantlement purposes. The project involved experts from Canada, the Netherlands, Russia, and the United States.
On 7-9 July, Japan hosted the 2008 G8 summit in Hokkaido. Major themes discussed were: World Economy, Environment and Climate Change, Development and Africa, International Institutions and Political Issues.
The summit declaration outlined the G8 commitments to: prevent WMD proliferation, support the Six-Party process towards the verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, undertake efforts to resolve risks posed by Iran’s nuclear program, commit fully to all three pillars of the NPT, negotiate a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty in the Conference on Disarmament; and implement the BTWC, the CWC, the HCOC, the UNSCR 1540, and the IAEA Additional Protocol. The declaration called for a continuing moratorium on nuclear weapon test explosions but did not mention the CTBT.
The report (and annex) on the G8 Global Partnership noted the progress in chemical weapons destruction, the dismantlement of nuclear submarines, the disposition of fissile material, the employment of former weapons scientists, and the physical protection of nuclear materials. Partners reaffirmed their continued commitment with the 2002 Kananaskis Statement.
The report noted U.S.-Russian cooperation on the construction of power plants that allowed for the permanent closure of three remaining plutonium production reactors in Russia.
On 6-8 June, Germany hosted the 2007 G8 summit in Heiligendamm. Members discussed a range of issues under three overarching themes: Growth and Responsibility in the World Economy, Growth and Responsibility in Africa, and Foreign Policy and Security Issues.
Forming part of a series of documents adopted at the conclusion of the summit, members issued statements on Nonproliferation, the Global Partnership, and Nuclear Safety and Security.
The Statement on Nonproliferation reaffirmed the commitment of members to the multilateral treaty system governing nonproliferation, while emphasizing the key role of the U.N. Security Council in addressing the challenges of proliferation. Members also underlined the importance of compliance with the multilateral treaty system and committed to continue efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with the AP the universally accepted verification standard to ensure the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
In order to reduce the risks associated with the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology, G8 members stressed the importance of developing and implementing mechanisms of multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle but reiterated that participation in such a mechanism should be on a voluntary basis without precluding any state from purchasing nuclear fuel cycle services commercially.
In reference to regional proliferation challenges, the G8 countries urged Iran to suspend its enrichment-related and reprocessing activities and deplored its refusal to meet its obligations under relevant UNSC resolutions. Regarding the Korean Peninsula, members showed great concerned over North Korea’s nuclear explosion of 9 October 2006, and called upon North Korea to refrain from conducting any further nuclear tests.
G8 members reaffirmed their commitment to the Global Partnership and to its priorities as originally formulated at the 2002 Kananaskis G8 summit. Members noted significant progress in all activities, and welcomed the increased financial contribution by Russia since 2002.
The NSSG, created at the 2002 Kananaskis Summit with the role of providing technical and strategic policy advice to leaders of G8 on nuclear safety and radiation protection issues, met and discussed nuclear safety improvement programs for operating nuclear power plants in Armenia and the Ukraine. The group reaffirmed its commitments towards improving safety conditions of Chernobyl’s damaged reactor unit site and making available safe and reliable facilities for the decommissioning of the shut down reactors units.
On 15 – 17 July, Russia hosted the 2006 G8 Summit at the Constantine Palace in Strelnya, near St. Petersburg. The primary themes were: energy security, education and the fight against infectious diseases.
The G8 members adopted a ‘Package of Documents’ at the summit, which included the ‘Statement on Non-Proliferation.’ The statement identified the proliferation of WMD as the ‘pre-eminent threat to international peace and security,’ and indicated the G8’s determination towards the fulfillment of all of their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments held under, but not exclusively, the NPT, CWC, BTWC, UNSCR 1540 and IAEA safeguards.
The Members re-affirmed the inalienable right to peaceful nuclear energy but stressed that alternatives must be sought to ensure access to nuclear fuel-related services to states as an alternative to pursuing enrichment and reprocessing activities. The Partnership noted with appreciation the Russian initiative towards multinational fuel centers and the US initiative towards a Global Nuclear Energy Partnership.
The G8 expressed “serious” concern over Iran’s nuclear program and supported referring Iran to the Security Council if it failed to cooperate. “Deep concern” was also expressed over the DPRK’s nuclear program, with particular reference and condemnation over the multiple missile test launches carried out on 5 July 2006. The G8 reaffirmed its full support for the September 19, 2005 Joint Statement and the Six-Party Talks. The G8 also commended Libya’s abandonment of WMDs.
The G8 encouraged India to take further steps towards integration into the mainstream of strengthening the nonproliferation regime, so as to facilitate a more forthcoming approach towards nuclear cooperation to address its energy requirements, in a manner that enhances and reinforces the global non-proliferation regime. The G8 also commended Libya’s abandonment of WMDs.
The Report on the G8 Global Partnership re-affirmed the commitment of the members fully implement all the G8 Partnership objectives and left open the possibility of expansion of the Partnership to other recipient countries and donor states. The G8 remained committed to raising $20 billion by 2012 for the Global Partnership, mainly for projects in Russia. The report noted the practical progress made by Global Partnership initiatives in Russia, including the destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantlement of 61 nuclear submarines, the funding of 1,400 research projects employing some 17,000 Russian nuclear scientists and the disposition of 34 tons of plutonium.
During the Summit, President Bush and Putin announced the launch of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. Intended to enhance cooperation between states in combating the threat of nuclear terrorism, the Initiative intended to improve accounting, control, and physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive substances, as well as security of nuclear facilities and further tackle illicit trafficking of fissile material, among other measures. The International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism is intended to serve as the primary, although not the exclusive, legal basis for the work of the Initiative.
Furthermore, the Strengthening the Global Partnership presented its reports to the G8 Partnership, on “Assessing the G8 Global Partnership: From Kananaskis to St. Petersburg” and on the Global Partnership Scorecard. These reports examined the progress as of 2006 by the G8 Global Partnership. It also noted the pledges received of approximately $17.5 billion; however, the partnership did “not yet reached its financial goal of $20 billion in pledges, and so far, only a small portion of pledges have been turned into projects.” The report recommended for increased funds to reduce urgent threats, such as securing nuclear and biological materials.
On 6-8 July, the U.K. hosted the 2005 G8 Summit in Gleneagles, Scotland. Major topics addressed included: the progress of the Global Partnership and other established nonproliferation objectives.
G8 members were particularly concerned over the threat of proliferation posed by Iran and North Korea. The leaders stressed the need for North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons program and return to the NPT.
The G8 Global Partnership Annual Report discussed ongoing and upcoming projects taking place in Russia, noting the developed efforts at increasing co-ordination between participating donors towards maximizing the use of resources. The Partnership also continued to work towards building an international framework to handle efficiently the disposition of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists.
The Partnership welcomed Ukraine as a new member and discussed the importance of expanding membership to additional former Soviet Union States.
Members emphasized the importance increasing membership to nonproliferation treaties and organizations such as the NPT, the International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, as well as the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation. Members also stressed the importance of the IAEA AP and its role as the new standard in the field of nuclear supply arrangements.
Leaders also discussed the progress on the Secure and Facilitated International Travel Initiative (SAFTI) and the Counter-Terrorism Action Group (CTAG). Members reiterated their dedication to improving security through multilateral cooperation through SAFTI. Regarding CTAG, members discussed shifting the focus from Africa and the Middle East to South East Asia.
On 8-10 June, the U.S. hosted the 2004 Summit of the G8 in Sea Island, Georgia. Among the major topics addressed by the Summit were: the status and progress of the Global Partnership and of nonproliferation objectives set out at the previous summits at Kananaskis and Evian.
G8 members endorsed an Action Plan on Nonproliferation that addressed eight major subjects: nuclear nonproliferation, the PSI, the status of the Global Partnership, nonproliferation challenges, defense against bioterrorism, chemical weapons proliferation, implementation of the Evian initiative on radioactive source security, and nuclear safety and security.
Regarding nuclear nonproliferation, G8 members affirmed their desire for ratification of and universal compliance with the IAEA’s AP. They committed to strengthen the IAEA through the creation of a Special Committee of the IAEA Board of Governors to focus on safeguards and verification.
Regional nonproliferation challenges addressed in the Action Plan and at the Summit included the DPRK’s withdrawal from the NPT, Iran’s nuclear program, and Libya’s abandonment of its weapons of mass destruction program and adherence to the NPT. The G8 urged all States not party to the BWC and the CWC to join as soon as possible. Members also inquired for possible IAEA guidance towards strengthening the controls surrounding radioactive sources to prevent their illicit acquisition. The Action Plan also encouraged international contributions towards funding for a confinement structure at Chernobyl, and for Ukraine’s cooperation in the project.
The G8 also discussed the possibility of amending the NSG guidelines. They agreed to refrain for a year from initiating new uranium enrichment reprocessing technology transfers to additional States, and to possibly create permanent controls in this area prior to the 2005 Summit. The G8 also called on States to put into practice UNSCR 1540.
The G8 members reaffirmed their support, and acknowledged widening international support, for the PSI and the Statement of Interdiction Principles for the trafficking of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.
In recognition of the continuing threat posed by terrorist attacks, G8 leaders adopted the SAFTI, which includes actions designed to increase security for travelers, such as widening a plan for the control of Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (Manpads) devised at the Evian Summit, as well as changing the standards, procedures, and information-exchange processes involved in the transport of cargo and in human travel.
The Partnership welcomed Australia, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, the Republic of Korea, and New Zealand as new donors.
On 1-3 June, France hosted the 2003 Summit of the G8 commenced in Evian. Major issues discussed included: the importance of a strong, multilateral approach to issues of global concern and the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Under the category of “Improving Security,” the Summit addressed five primary topics: nonproliferation, terrorism, transport security and control of Manpads, the Global Partnership, and small arms.
The Summit adopted a statement on the proliferation of WMDs, which endorsed an Action Plan on the prevention of radiological terrorism and the securing of radioactive sources. It also adopted an Action Plan on capacity building against terrorism and created the CTAG, in support of the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee, with the aim of combating terrorist groups world-wide. One suggested method involved “choking off” financing flow that supports terrorism by calling on Finance Ministers to evaluate progress and identify next steps, while encouraging them to initiate dialogue with foreign counterparts, including those whose financial institutions may serve as conduits for such financing.
New initiatives and measures to reduce further risks of terrorist action against mass transportation were also agreed at the Summit. Particular focus was given to sea and air transport security, and to the prevention of use of Manpads against civil aviation.
Members of the Summit reaffirmed their 2002 Kananaskis commitments to prevent terrorists, or those that harbor them, from acquiring weapons of mass destruction. A determined commitment was made to sustain and broaden the G8’s efforts toward the following issues: reaching the Kananaskis commitment of raising up to US$20 billion over 10 years, otherwise known as the “10 plus 10 over 10” initiative; developing and initiating concrete and worthwhile projects; fully implementing the guidelines; and opening the initiative to new countries. To that end, the Summit members endorsed an Action Plan on the Global Partnership. With respect to small arms, Summit members welcomed the July meeting of States on the illicit traffic of small arms.
Non-G8 States Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland were welcomed as new participants in the Global Partnership, making a collective contribution of about $200 million in 2003.
At the June 2002 Summit, G8 leaders adopted a set of “six principles” that outlined broad goals for the initiative and “nine guidelines” for new projects. Under these guidelines, the Global Partnership was given the ability to initiate bilateral and multilateral projects and enhance existing ones, such as those under the long-standing U.S. Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program.
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- Cooperative Threat Reduction (Nunn-Lugar) Program
- A U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) program established in 1992 by the U.S. Congress, through legislation sponsored primarily by Senators Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar. It is the largest and most diverse U.S. program addressing former Soviet Union weapons of mass destruction threats. The program has focused primarily on: (1) destroying vehicles for delivering nuclear weapons (e.g., missiles and aircraft), their launchers (such as silos and submarines), and their related facilities; (2) securing former Soviet nuclear weapons and their components; and (3) destroying Russian chemical weapons. The term is often used generically to refer to all U.S. nonproliferation programs in the former Soviet Union—and sometimes beyond— including those implemented by the U.S. Departments of Energy, Commerce, and State. The program’s scope has expanded to include threat reduction efforts in geographical areas outside the Former Soviet Union.