Last Updated: June, 2014
The below entries provide analytical descriptions of selected biological facilities in Kazakhstan. Since definitive information on Kazakhstan's biological facilities is often classified, the descriptions and locations of these facilities are sometimes speculative, based on the most credible available open source material. Entries are regularly updated as further information becomes available.
Biological-Research and Development
Around 15 to 20% of the world's explored uranium reserves are in Kazakhstan.  The country is the world's largest producer of uranium, surpassing Canada and Australia in 2009. In 2011, Kazakhstan mined 35% of the world's natural uranium supply. The country plans to substantially increase mining production in the next decade by opening 16 new mines.  Kazatomprom, a state-owned corporation in control of the country's nuclear industry, plans to increase its profile in the world nuclear industry by providing more fuel cycle-related services; Kazatomprom's goal is to supply 30% of the world's fuel fabrication market by 2015. 
Kazakhstan played a key role during the Soviet era as a supplier and processor of uranium. Uranium was mined throughout the country and processed at Kazakhstan's Tselinnyy Mining and Chemical Combine and the Prikaspiyskiy Mining and Metallurgy Combine as well as at the Kara Balta Ore Mining Combine in Kyrgyzstan and Vostokredmet's Combine No. 6 in Tajikistan. Kazakhstan currently produces uranium dioxide pellets for nuclear fuel at Ulba Metallurgy Plant in the city of Ust-Kamenogorsk. In summer 2008, Kazakhstan and Canada (Cameco) established a joint venture to construct a uranium conversion facility at the Ulba Metallurgy Plant.
Russia and Kazakhstan are actively pursuing cooperation in the nuclear industry. At a January 2006 summit, leaders of the two countries agreed to work out a plan by May 2006 for the integration of their nuclear industries, especially with respect to the Zarechnoye uranium mining venture and Ulba Metallurgy Plant.
Kazakhstan has five nuclear reactors: four research reactors and one power reactor. The National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan is responsible for the country's research reactors, including three at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site and one in Alatau, just outside the former capital of Almaty. The BN-350 power reactor in Aktau was shut down in April 1999. On 26 September 2000, the government of Kazakhstan rejected plans to build a new nuclear power plant at Lake Balkhash. However, on 21 November 2007, Kazakhstan’s Prime-Minister announced plans to construct, jointly with Russia, a new power plant in Aktau, which will host two 300 MWt reactor units. Kazatomprom and Russia’s Atomstroyeksport have established a joint venture, Atomnye Stantsii, to design and build medium-power reactors based on the VBER design.
Kazakhstan has several radioactive waste sites, including a storage facility for high-activity waste at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site.
When the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, Kazakhstan inherited 1,410 nuclear warheads deployed on RS-20 [NATO designation SS-18 'Satan'] missiles and Tu-95 [Bear] heavy bombers. [4, 5] The Kazakhstani parliament approved the ratification of the START I Treaty on 2 July 1992.  Kazakhstan formally acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) on 14 February 1994 and transferred its last nuclear warhead to Russia in April 1995. [7, 8]
 "World Uranium Mining," World Nuclear Association, May 2012, www.world-nuclear.org.
 "Uranium Mining," Kazatomprom National Atomic Company, www.kazatomprom.kz.
 "Uranium and Nuclear Power in Kazakhstan," World Nuclear Association, May 2012, www.world-nuclear.org.
 "The Politics of Renunciation: The Cases of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine," Occasional Paper No. 22, Henry L. Stimson Center, www.stimson.org, April 1995, p. 5.
 Richard G. Lugar, Nunn-Lugar: The Past as a Guide to the Future, presentation at NISNP Conference Assessing U.S. Dismantlement and Nonproliferation Assistance Programs in the Newly Independent States, Monterey, CA, 13 December 1999.
 Bureau of Nonproliferation, "START I: Lisbon Protocol and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty," US State Department, www.state.gov, 14 February 1995.
 "US Congratulates Kazakhstan for Removal of Nuclear Weapons," Nicholas Burns statement, US Department of State, www.state.gov, 26 May 1995.
 US Department of State Daily Press Briefing, US Department of State, www.state.gov, 26 May 1995.
Missile- Space Launch & Missile Test Facility
Nuclear-Exploration and Mining
Nuclear-Research and Development
Get the Facts on Kazakhstan
- Transferred 1,410 nuclear warheads to Russia following the Soviet collapse
- Over 10,000 kg of HEU and 3,000 kg of Pu leftover from the Soviet era remain on Kazakh territory
- Once home to the world's largest anthrax production facility at Stepnogorsk