Last Updated: March 1, 2011
Other Name: Karachi Nuclear Power Plant
Location: Approximately 25km west of Karachi, Sindh Province
Subordinate To: Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)
Size: 125 MWe net
Facility Status: Operational

The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) is a 137 MWe Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) that is fueled by natural uranium. [1]

KANUPP was Pakistan's first nuclear power plant. After a May 1965 agreement between Canada and Pakistan, Canadian General Electric began construction of the reactor in September 1965, and the plant went into commercial operation in 1972. [2] Initially, Canada supplied Pakistan with heavy water and natural uranium fuel for KANUPP. [3] Following India's 1974 nuclear test and Pakistan's subsequent refusal to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Canada halted its supply of heavy water and fuel in 1976. [4] As a result, Pakistan has been indigenously fabricating fuel since 1980. [5]

After KANUPP completed its nominal design life of 30 years in 2002, the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Agency (PNRA) extended its operation to 2012. [6] Throughout the PAEC's numerous safety and operational upgrades for relicensing requirements, KANUPP has operated at 50MW. [7] Pakistan signed a safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1969, and the facility currently remains under safeguards. [8]

[1] Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, "Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP),"
[2] International Atomic Energy Agency, "Pakistan," IAEA Country Nuclear Profiles, 2009 Edition,; Jeffrey T. Richelson, Spying on the Bomb (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007), p. 327.
[3] P.L. Bhola, Pakistan's Nuclear Policy (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1993), p. 27.
[4] Global Fissile Material Report 2010, Chapter 10, International Panel on Fissile Materials, December 2010,; International Atomic Energy Agency, "Pakistan," IAEA Country Nuclear Profiles, 2009 Edition,
[5] Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, "Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) - About,"
[6] "KANUPP Gets 10 Year Extension," Nuclear Engineering International, 16 December 1999.
[7] "Pakistan's Karachi nuclear power plant 'back in operation,'" BBC Worldwide Monitoring – South Asia, 4 December 2006; Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, "KANUPP,"
[8] International Atomic Energy Agency, "Status List: Conclusion of Safeguards Agreements, Additional Protocols and Small Quantities Protocols," 4 March 2011,

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